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INdRA  Groundwater Rehabilitation and Flood Management

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Groundwater Rehabilitation and Flood Management

Consultancy:Drought causes and solutions  v. 3.4 2015

Groundwater Rehabilitation and Flood Management
    Groundwater depletion and seasonal flooding are all based upon ground saturation and soil holding capacity.  Flooding occurs when the flow of water exceeds the soils ability to absorb.  Groundwater depletion of renewable groundwater resources occurs when either the water demands exceeds the replenishment capacity, or replenishment is inadequate due to topological or soil impermeability.

Groundwater capacity can also be reduced by contamination primarily due to source point pollution or distributed source pollution from un-regulated well drilling.

Around the globe many government and NGO agencies have been able to combat seasonal flooding with various small scale physical modifications.  Yet, as the climate changes many of these measures will prove inadequate over the short or medium term.

The INdRA  consultancy will provide 50-100 year solutions to flooding while rehabilitating ground water resources, and in extreme cases by reducing or redirecting precipitation.

The INdRA Consultative Process:
Typical INdRA  Environmental Projects:
 
 

Program Description:

 

Methodologies:

Hydrology Mapping:

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

geo-engineering experts since 2002,Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention , Solar radiation management,geoengineers,Marine Cloud Brightening, ocean acidification, stratospheric sulfate aerosols, Carbon dioxide removal,Greenhouse gas remediation & Carbon sequestration,climate change, runaway global warming, desertification,desertification mediation,rain maker,ground based cloud enhancement,atmospheric heat control,wind management,rain farming,transborder humidity management,precipitation sheds,watershed modification,Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum,UNFCCC,Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),Arctic geoengineering,Carbon negative fuel,Convention on Biological Diversity,Earth systems engineering & management,biorecharge,wildfire control,drought mitigation,Five Ways to Save the World,Haida Gwaii geoengineering controversy,climate control,climate management,climate evolution,atmospheric evolution,atmospheric management,air pollution control,air polution mitigation,hail cannons,weather control,weather modification,gare hypothesis,regional geoengineering,local geoengineering,regional weater modifiction,List of geoengineering topics,Macro-engineering,Planetary engineering,Project,Stormfury,Terraforming,Virgin Earth Challenge,Weather control,Hurricane modification,Convention on Biological Diversity


Hydrology Mapping : Program design, methods, objectives and metrics:


This program is designed to generate a dynamic catalog of local or regional water sources, categorized by salinity, flows, renewability, and hygienic state.    Longitudinal studies of secondary and primary sources are considered for periods sufficient to incorporate the effects of sea surface temperature fluctuations such as El Niño, as well as synoptic watershed variations.

The objective of this data collection is to identify sources, cycles and frailties of humidity sources.  The deliverables of the program will include detailed flow maps of hydrological sources including arable and non-arable land.

This data is then used to understand wind intensity and wind flows in the region to facilitate land and water use recommendations designed to optimize wind flows.

Thermal Mapping:




Program objectives and metrics:


Secondary data is augmented with primary data sources collected by professional IR imaging professionals.  Every attempt will be made to hire local or regional professionals. Methods, such as drones or fixed wing surveys, will be selected for effectiveness and cost efficiency.

This portion of the program will deliver a sufficiently detailed longitudinal thermal picture of the area to allow an understanding of heat sources and sinks sufficient to make recommendations.

A tutorial on Infrared Thermography

Utilization Mapping:

 





   

Utilization Mapping: Program methods and objectives:



Water usage is a misnomer in that the vast majority of water is simply cycled through a usage and then returned to the environment. The change in the water volumes due to seepage or evaporation are generally zero sum. 

Yet, if the pot-ability or potential usage profile of the water is changed by usage this is viewed as off-stream usage. 

Utilization mapping methods depend upon the ultimate usage of the data. 

Off-stream usage data is applicable to both regional profiling and cross border usage analysis.  Off-stream usage includes water consumption, via changes in hygienic or water quality status, such as domestic, agricultural, or industrial usages which  change the status of the water. 

In-stream usage data, is usage that does not have a significant affect on the potable or hygienic nature of the water, such as usage by hydro-electric facilities. 

In-stream data is most relevant for usage in determining cross border values, as although volume or water quality may not change flow intensity can be of significant importance as water flows across borders.

The primary sources of usage data, field and user surveys, are combined with secondary sources, (government , NGO, etc.) are analyzed alongside tertiary or derived sources such as agricultural production. 

The deliverables are longitudinal historical analysis and usage predictions for the coming decades.

Legislative Guidelines:




This consultancy is designed to work directly with local, regional and national legislators through various agencies and commissions.

The primary deliverables from an INdRA environmental consultancy is a series of detailed reports.  These reports will include a wide range of data analysis, feasibility studies, and hard legislative recommendations.

Legislative guidelines will provide sufficient background information on important stakeholder concerns such as best practices,  efficiency and effectiveness historical information, cost estimates, time lines, community impact statements, and model legislation.

Typical recommendations include zoning laws, business development guidelines, commercial, residential and agricultural guides, and infrastructure projects.

INdRA project personnel will act in an explicitly advisory capacity for insurance and legislative purposes.  Where necessary appointments, temporary and open, will be accepted to address political or administrative requirements.

   

Project Management:







Depending upon the nature of the challenges being addressed, INdRA staffers will employ a variety of project management techniques.  Scrum ban, benefits realization management, and Prince2 are the primary project management approaches.

Our objectives are to move projects forward with sufficient transparency that stakeholders can easily report and justify progress to their constituents.

IINdRA  will supply world class subject matter experts to weigh in at all stages of the projects implementation.  These SME's will be on contract to review important elements of any project.  Those elements of most concern are structural implementation, industrial design, resource acquisition, and standards adherence.
 

Negative social impacts of flooding



- Loss of lives and property:

 Immediate impacts of flooding include loss of human life, damage to property, destruction of crops, loss of livestock, non-functioning of infrastructure facilities and deterioration of health condition owing to waterborne diseases. Flash floods, with little or no warning time, cause more deaths than slow-rising riverine floods.

- Loss of livelihoods:

 As communication links and infrastructure such as power plants, roads and bridges are damaged and disrupted, economic activities come to a standstill, resulting in dislocation and the dysfunction of normal life for a period much beyond the duration of the flooding. Similarly, the direct effect on production assets, be it in agriculture or industry, can inhibit regularly activity and lead to loss of livelihoods. The spill over effects of the loss of livelihoods can be felt in business and commercial activities even in adjacent non-flooded areas.

- Decreased purchasing and production power:

 Damage to infrastructure also causes long-term impacts, such as disruptions to clean water and electricity, transport, communication, education and health care. Loss of livelihoods, reduction in purchasing power and loss of land value in the flood plains lead to increased vulnerabilities of communities living in the area. The additional cost of rehabilitation, relocation of people and removal of property from flood-affected areas can divert the capital required for maintaining production.

- Mass migration

: Frequent flooding, resulting in loss of livelihoods, production and other prolonged economic impacts and types of suffering can trigger mass migration or population displacement. Migration to developed urban areas contributes to the overcrowding in the cities. These migrants swell the ranks of the urban poor and end up living in marginal lands in cities that are prone to floods or other risks. Selective out-migration of the workforce sometimes creates complex social problems.

- Psychosocial effects:

 The huge psycho-social effects on flood victims and their families can traumatize them for long periods of time. The loss of loved ones can generate deep impacts, especially on children. Displacement from one’s home, loss of property and livelihoods and disruption to business and social affairs can cause continuing stress. The stress of overcoming these losses can be overwhelming and produce lasting psychological impacts.


- Hindering economic growth and development:

 The high cost of relief and recovery may adversely impact investment in infrastructure and other development activities in the area and in certain cases may cripple the frail economy of the region. Recurrent flooding in a region may discourage long-term investments by the government and private sector alike. Lack of livelihoods, combined with migration of skilled labor and inflation may have a negative impact on a region’s economic growth. Loss of resources can lead to high costs of goods and services, delaying its development programs.

- Political implications:

 Ineffective response to relief operations during major flood events may lead to public discontent or loss of trust in the authorities or the state and national governments. Lack of development in flood-prone areas may cause social inequity and even social unrest posing threat to peace and stability in the region.
 

Groundwater depletion:



Groundwater is a valuable resource both in the United States and throughout the world. Where surface water, such as lakes and rivers, are scarce or inaccessible, groundwater supplies many of the hydrologic needs of people everywhere. In the United States. It is the source of drinking water for about half the total population and nearly all of the rural population, and it provides over 50 billion gallons per day for agricultural needs. Groundwater depletion, a term often defined as long-term water-level declines caused by sustained groundwater pumping, is a key issue associated with groundwater use. Many areas of the United States are experiencing groundwater depletion.

Excessive pumping can overdraw the groundwater "bank account"
The water stored in the ground can be compared to money kept in a bank account. If you withdraw money at a faster rate than you deposit new money you will eventually start having account-supply problems. Pumping water out of the ground faster than it is replenished over the long-term causes similar problems. The volume of groundwater in storage is decreasing in many areas of the United States in response to pumping. Groundwater depletion is primarily caused by sustained groundwater pumping. Some of the negative effects of groundwater depletion:

- drying up of wells
- reduction of water in streams and lakes
- deterioration of water quality
- increased pumping costs
- land subsidence

What are some effects of groundwater depletion?



- Lowering of the water table



The most severe consequence of excessive groundwater pumping is that the water table, below which the ground is saturated with water, can be lowered. For water to be withdrawn from the ground, water must be pumped from a well that reaches below the water table. If groundwater levels decline too far, then the well owner might have to deepen the well, drill a new well, or, at least, attempt to lower the pump. Also, as water levels decline, the rate of water the well can yield may decline.

- Increased costs for the user



As the depth to water increases, the water must be lifted higher to reach the land surface. If pumps are used to lift the water (as opposed to artesian wells), more energy is required to drive the pump. Using the well can become prohibitively expensive.

- Reduction of water in streams and lakes



There is more of an interaction between the water in lakes and rivers and groundwater than most people think. Some, and often a great deal, of the water flowing in rivers comes from seepage of groundwater into the streambed. Groundwater contributes to streams in most physiographic and climatic settings. The proportion of stream water that comes from from groundwater inflow varies according to a region's geography, geology, and climate.

Groundwater pumping can alter how water moves between an aquifer and a stream, lake, or wetland by either intercepting groundwater flow that discharges into the surface-water body under natural conditions, or by increasing the rate of water movement from the surface-water body into an aquifer. A related effect of groundwater pumping is the lowering of groundwater levels below the depth that streamside or wetland vegetation needs to survive. The overall effect is a loss of riparian vegetation and wildlife habitat.

- Land subsidence



The basic cause of land subsidence is a loss of support below ground. In other words, sometimes when water is taken out of the soil, the soil collapses, compacts, and drops. This depends on a number of factors, such as the type of soil and rock below the surface. Land subsidence is most often caused by human activities, mainly from the removal of subsurface water.

- Deterioration of water quality



One water-quality threat to fresh groundwater supplies is contamination from saltwater saltwater intrusion. All of the water in the ground is not fresh water; much of the very deep groundwater and water below oceans is saline. In fact, an estimated 3.1 million cubic miles (12.9 cubic kilometers) of saline groundwater exists compared to about 2.6 million cubic miles (10.5 million cubic kilometers) of fresh groundwater (Gleick, P. H., 1996: Water resources. In Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, ed. by S. H. Schneider, Oxford University Press, New York, vol. 2, pp.817-823). Under natural conditions the boundary between the freshwater and saltwater tends to be relatively stable, but pumping can cause saltwater to migrate inland and upward, resulting in saltwater contamination of the water supply.