INdRA 

Interior Natural Desert Reclamation and Afforestation projects

 

Geo-engineering Region by Region

      Redefining Acts Of God

 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

   

 

 

INdRA  Science & Research Goals Overview

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geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

 

The basic science which underlies the INdRA concept spans many disciplines.  Ranging from the nature of weather to the impact of brackish water in an arid ecosystem.   There is also a tremendous amount of primary and secondary research that must be undertaken to effectively apply the system with minimal damage to targeted environments.   The following are summaries of what we know now.

In summary an INdRA project seeks to place the dynamic control of regional humidity into the hands of scientists and government planners.   This control will allow average rainfall to be increased in an area by increasing sources of enhanced evaporation.   Also when combined with evaporation management schemes which cause the public to limit their contributions to regional humidity, with such methods as the curtailing of lawn watering, and covering large bodies of water such as swimming pools, an INdRA project can also reduce average regional rainfall.  

The predicted affects are both regional, inter-regional, and global.   The regional affects will be in maintaining targeted average rainfall levels on a weekly, monthly and annual basis.  While the inter-regional affects will be that the potential for dangerous storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes to be mitigated by management of inter-regional humidity, presuming that clashing weather fronts can be forecast and significantly affected by encouraging energy release through rainfall along the collision path.   While the global effects will be to absorb the rising seas into arid sections of the land, which will even if not sufficient to adequately control rising sea levels, opening up new arable biomes for all life to flourish in.

For more information: Please request ESOVS08

   

Average rainfall management:geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

Hypothesis: Optimized regional humidity can have a direct affect on average rainfall levels.

The amount of rain that reaches the ground in a particular region, over the course of some period seems to depend upon relative humidity over a period of time,  non-aqueous particulates  like dust or carbon from vehicles, atmospheric temperature at various elevations, and wind speed.  That  particular order of significance may not be correct, or static, however, it seems at least synthetically valid that humidity is the most important component.   In that if there is inadequate water suspended in the atmosphere, then rain of water cannot occur with the necessary intensity to actually reach the ground.

To translate a change in relative humidity into sympathetic change in cloud formation rates and therefore average rainfall is largely a function of atmospheric temperature at many levels ranging from ground-level to troposphere elevations.  Which on a regional level lays beyond the current control of mankind.  However, in arid areas temperatures are normally sufficient to impact favorably on relative  humidity but the levels of absolute humidity are inadequate.

Consequently our hypothesis is that by increasing the absolute humidity in a targeted area, with;

  1. Large surface area exposures, 
  2. High relative water temperature,
  3. Enhanced water evaporation
  4. Enhanced nucleation sources
  5. Enhanced vapor and nucleation source elevation

The first metric is large-surface areas exposed to the atmosphere as either flowing water [brackish or fresh] or concentrations such as salt marshes, or evaporation pans, with sufficient surface area to create a significant impact on absolute humidity for a given ecosystem state.   Where physical geography is an obstacle, high-surface areas may be artificially generated with misting systems.

Wikipedia annual rainfal by monthThe second metric is high relative water temperatures.  Water molecules that are more energetic than the atmosphere can more easily obtain the necessary escape velocity necessary for evaporation to occur at the molecular level.   It is this factor that limits humidity on the coasts where tremendous water surface areas occur.   It is the relative temperature of the ocean water which limits evaporation.  This accounts, according to the literature for a higher incidence of storm activity in places like the Gulf of Mexico, relative to the Atlantic due to higher water temperatures.   Therefore to achieve the goal of higher relative water temperatures evaporation resources will be designed to maximize the effectiveness of solar heating via depth manipulation.  In clearer terms the evaporation resources will generally be shallow and therefore more easily affected by sunshine.  Where solar heating is insufficient alterative sources will be employed to raise water temperatures.   These source would include strategic heating stations, powered by wind or gravity, and enhanced flow rates generated by pumps or artificial drops.

The third metric is enhanced evaporation sources. The idea is that more energetic water will evaporate at an enhanced rate.   The methods of non-thermal energizing include the introduction of baffles into fast moving shallow streams, mistingDrought mitigation, too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, regional pollution, weather management, weather mitigation, dangerous storms, flooding, climate change, deforestation, climate modification, geo-engineering, Dr. Gare Henderson, and stepping.

The fourth metric is enhanced cloud nucleation sources.  Rain clouds require sufficient nucleation sources to form drop sizes heavy enough to reach the surface prior to evaporation.   Seawater features one of the best nucleation sources, sea salt.  This natural source combined with carefully chosen biogenic sources from riparian zones, are the heart of the INdRA scheme.  The high quality of rain clouds over oceans is due to sea salt nucleation.

The fifth metric is water vapor, and nucleation source elevation.   Cloud formation depends on condensation at appropriate atmospheric elevations.  The natural elevation sources are up drafts caused by temperature variations between air masses.   INdRA channels will feature a combination of active and passive methods to facilitate up-drafting, and thereby stimulating cloud formation.   These methods will include wind diversion systems, which translate horizontal winds into vertical updrafts as passive systems.   Active methods will include solar and gravitationally powered up-draft generators, which will consist of large targetable fans.  These methods will collectively allow operators to stimulate cloud formation with a large degree of regional specificity.

The end result of these methods when combined with evaporation management techniques will allow regional authorities to increase average rainfall levels,  especially when combined with more traditional rainmaking techniques such as cloud seeding.  These controls could be effective, in particularly areas in affecting both the frequency and intensity of rainfall over relatively short time horizons ideally days if not hours.

For more information: Please request ESARM02

  Evaporation management:Average barometic pressures

Hypothesis:  Regional humidity levels can be manipulated by controlled exposure of water in optimized evaporation transits and engineered salt marshes.

It is difficult the envision and INdRA project as effective locally.  However, in a large area regional publics can be identified and serviced with regional resources.   For example in the case of a desert area such as he Mohave an area such as the Las Vegas metro region would provide a regional target that would be served by evaporation resources strategically located to enhance cloud formation in that area, relative to forecast wind conditions.  Cloud formation may be encouraged in an upwind location, wherein with sufficient experience it can be predicted that sufficient cloud formation and saturation will occur over the region within a limited time frame.  A typical scenario that the design foresees, is that if rain were desired on Friday to facilitate street cleaning and payday vice suppression in Las Vegas each week a plan could be devised, not to ensure a Friday shower, but to significantly increase the probability of such.

The planned Friday showers for Las Vegas would involve some regional facility calculating the amount of absolute humidity for cloud formation at points up-wind to the targeted area.   As stated there would be no guarantee, but the probability of a Friday rain could be increased substantially.  This type of local or regional weather control is amazingly not unprecedented, but up to this point has been a statistical consequence of heavy automobile use in congested areas, which increases the likelihood of Saturday showers by 22% according to the literature.

The plan is to study the normal patterns of a region and its sub-regions, and to designate target centers, which may be cities, agricultural areas, or desert areas selected for acclimatization.  Transit ways and other evaporation resources would then be positioned strategically to maximize effectiveness.  This is of course no small feat, and computer and lab simulations will be required to plan effectively.  However, it should be pointed out that even a plan of least resistance  could still be effective in general acclimatization projects, but with less predictable results.    Some have suggested that many natural low elevation targets such as death valley could be employed to greater usage, however very deep reservoirs would prove to be ineffective as sources of managed evaporation.

The science of evaporation as we understand it today is a combination  the relative air pressure, air temperature, water temperature, surface area. and flow rates.  Of these variables we can control only water temperature, surface area, and flow rates.   Water temperature can be manipulated via convectional heating, or by maximizing the surface area exposed to direct sunlight.  In the case of convectional heating power requirements could be met on a local basis with clean energy technologies which suit local conditions, and when the power is not required for heating it can be re-directed to the community.,,

 

Notes: (est. evaporation of 1,200 -6,000 gallons per day per 100 2ft. section [each 300 mile section can generate 1 average cumulus cloud of height 3.0 km and radius 1.0 km daily])

 

 

For more information: Please request ESEM05

  Biodiversity management:  Drought mitigation, too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, regional pollution, weather management, weather mitigation, dangerous storms, flooding, climate change, deforestation, climate modification, geo-engineering, Dr. Gare Henderson

Hypothesis: Global biodiversity will be protected and incubated by converting arid habitats into  high moisture habitats.

Biodiversity by any measure, either species or genetic is habitat dependent.    An INdRA project has among its principal aims the expansion of arable land.  It is generally accepted that the types of habitat which foster the greatest amount of biodiversity are habitats with above average hydrological characteristics.   The continuum of biodiversity in habitats ranges from a peak in oceans, rainforests, and swamps to often extreme lows in arid, acidic environments such as deserts.   Of course we do not argue that desert environments are not rich with diversity. Yet the aggregate bio-mass, and variety of life forms which populate these environments pales in comparison with habitats that provide ample amounts of the most basic element of life...water.   It should also be noted that desert life-forms are the most adaptable to changes in environments, and will likely dominate their habitats altered by greater hydrology.

An INdRA project will expand habitat in predictable and calculable measures.   The expansive riparian zone, which is a feature of the projects fundamental design will provide corridors biodiversity stretching from the sea coasts to the deserts.  Studies will show that such corridors increase both the sustainability of current life forms, as well as foster the generational development of newly evolved forms, especially in the insect and reptilian families.  An INdRA project also features the development of salt marshes to aid in the desalination of the transited seawater.   Salt marshes have long proven to be incubators, breadbaskets, and refuge of countless endangered species.

An INdRA project will also increase the biodiversity and sustainability of even non-arid regions.  Increases in annual rainfall will touch both human and non-human lives by the billions.   By the elimination of sustained drought, the control of forest fires, and the prevention of topsoil erosion due to severe flooding, and INdRA project will bring a region from marginal to Eden like conditions.

Biodiversity is one of the key values of an INdRA project, in both design and funding.   INdRA projects are designed to participate in various carbon trading schemes, and we are currently seeking international support to have the INdRA model registered with the UNFCCC to certify projects as acceptable cap and trade partners with industries around the world.

In summary the impacts on sustainability and biodiversity which are provided directly or indirectly by an INdRA project will effectively begin to move the biological clock back to pre-historic levels, and removing the scars that mankind has wrought.

 

For more information: Please request ESBDM03

  geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, Sea-level rise mitigation:

Hypothesis: Local sea level rise can be mitigated by diverting significant sea water inland.

The science of global (eustatic) sea level rise is equivocal at best.  However addressing the current hypothesis of thermal expansion, and volumetric expansion due to global warming induced melting of glaciers and global ice caps, allows us to speculate as to the impacts of the widespread adoption of INdRA projects worldwide. 

The impacts of INdRA projects on cloud formation, as detailed in our global warming mitigation section, will reduce the amounts of sunlight reaching the earth and therefore add to a general cooling phenomena. 

However, the larger impacts will be in reducing the amount of heat absorbing arid regions.  As the global inventory of arable land increases desert lands will be increasingly covered by bio-mass.  These increases in bio-mass will have a double affect on the global atmosphere of less heat retention, and greater conversion of sunlight into other energetics..  The primary affect is that land covered by bio-mass, will convert more sunlight into photosynthesis, and therefore reduce the amount of energy absorbed by the rocks and sandy soils of deserts   Sunlight will also be reflected by a regional increase in hydrology.  Increases in bio-mass will decrease  CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, the resultant CO2 reduction will allow greater heat to escape into space.  The correlation between biomass and greenhouse gases is established science.

Local rises in sea level LMSL (local mean seal level) can be potentially affected by the amount of sea water diverted into an INdRA project.  We speculate that this phenomena, of temporary LMSL reductions will be obtained due to the warmer top layers of a sea being diverted inland.   This could potentially lower water temperatures especially in protected areas and impact thermal expansion.

These short and medium term affects will be accompanied by longer term sea temperature reductions, although we anticipate that the impacts would be less than 1 degree Celsius, and more likely a fraction of a degree.   Such reductions can have global impacts in mitigating thermal expansion, , while the long term impacts on increased heat release through CO2 reductions, and sunlight blockage due to increased cloud formation will also add to a general cooling of the planet.

For more information: Please request ESSLRM11

  Global warming mitigation

Hypothesis: Increases in biomass, average rainfall, and reductions of arid regions will mitigate a variety of causes of global warming causes.

The theory of anthropogenic concentrations of greenhouse gases, increasing the amount of solar heat retained in the atmosphere, discounting phenomena such as orbital forcing, and solar variation is generally accepted science.  However, despite any questions of the validity of causes, the results are nearly beyond question.  Posing the problem this way we can agree that rapid changes to global ecology can be observed, and their effects are deleterious at least in the short run to any objective of maintaining the status quo.   Many have suggested that the longer term impacts of this phenomena will be a continuation of evolution, and that human efforts are more effectively directed to other global imperatives.  We do not plan to join this nascent debate, on either side.

The large scale adoption of INdRA evaporation projects world wide will help to mitigate the accepted causes of global warming.   The primary affect will be through increases in bio-mass, from low bio-mass desert  densities to the higher bio-mass densities found in semi-arid, and generationally to the near pinnacle bio-mass densities of rain forests.   These relative bio-mass changes will decrease the amounts of greenhouse gases in the environment, from current sources, and if sufficiently expansive will tend towards real reductions in greenhouse gas percentages in the global environment.  The conversion of arid regions to semi-arid, and even tropical regions can be the most significant anthropogenic affect possible given current world populations.  These increases in relative bio-mass will also convert more of solar energy into other energetics such as photosynthesis.

Imagine the impacts of 100 new Brazilian  rain forests being introduced to world ecology, spread evenly around the globe.

The secondary affect of INdRA evaporation projects will be to increase cloud formation in normally cloudless desert skies.  Due to the high reflectance properties of particularly dense clouds, vast amounts of solar radiation of both heat and light will be reflected back to upper levels of the atmosphere and into space.  The affect of increasing cloud cover over arid regions, will be to bring average soil temperatures to levels more conducive to pedogenesis.  Bio-diversity will be impacted  via increased propagation rates, and ever more bio-conducive soils through enhanced species competition, leading to increases in the amount and quality of animal droppings, and decaying organics which are necessary for soil formation in formerly arid areas.

A more speculative impact of large INdRA projects, will be to decrease coastal ocean temperatures via the effects of moving large amounts of top layer seawater inland.  The long term impact of a skimming of the warmer layers of regional seas will tend to moderate regional temperatures, and encourage the procreation of more diverse ocean bio-mass which appear to flourish under colder water temperatures.

For more information: Please request ESGWM04

 
  Dangerous weather management:

Hypothesis: Normalizing regional weathers will reduce the incidence of dangerous weather conditions regionally.

Deserts are one of the most pernicious demons behind most serious storms, their barren landscapes absorb the suns heat, and generate the deadly high pressure zones.   Other actors include mountains, and large bodies of water, but the deserts are something that man can control with current technology.

Weather is caused by a combination of natural phenomena, including heat imbalances, hydrological imbalances, the fluid nature of various layers of the atmosphere, the rotation of the earth, and various planetary relationships, especial between the earth and the moon, and the earth and the sun.  There are accepted theories of how weather is generated, enhanced, or mitigated by these complex relationships.   Mankind has an increasing causal relationship with the weather, due to our production of both greenhouse gases, and of the concentrations of particulate matter  produced by our cities.  For example it can be predicted, with great accuracy that rain is more likely to occur on the weekends in cities, due to the week long build up of car exhaust.;

Regional weather conditions such as strong winds in tornadoes or hurricanes, can be largely attributed to the collision of high and low pressure areas motivated by both the natural tendencies of fluid pressure to equalize, and the natural movement of fluid (atmosphere) in sympathy with planetary influences such as the curvature of the earth, the rotation of the earth, and the gravitational conflicts between the earth, the sun, and the moon.   When these forces interact with the dynamic topography of the earth, as presenting obstacles such as mountains, heat sinks (large bodies of water) and natural variations in the fluid density of the atmosphere...the result is increasingly predictable weather.

An INdRA project through control of regional humidity can allow mankind to introduce a known into the complex equation of regional weather.  With extensive research and trials, regional authorities will be able to foster responses to predicted imbalances, thereby mitigating the most dangerous conditions.  For example, when a hot dry air mass is forecast to impact with colder humid front, the humidity of the dry air mass could be increased to such as degree as to minimize the magnitude of the collision.  While in the case of a hot humid front developing, which might later become a tornado, sufficient humidity could be added to provoke a cascade prior to the necessary collusion of fronts.

These are areas that will of course require research, modeling, and generations of experience to perfect.  

For more information: Please request ESDWM14

 
  Energy requirements: 7/10/08

Hypothesis: Sufficient power to make an INdRA scheme viable can be obtained from clean energy sources.