∞ INdRA ∞
Interior Natural Desert Reclamation and Acclimatization project
Geo-engineering Region by Region
Redefining Acts Of God
Development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
∞ INdRA ∞ Latent Heat and Pollution Source Management and Mitigation:
|Latent heat is energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process. An example is a state of matter change, meaning a phase transition, such as ice melting or water boiling.||
Latent heat is energy that has be converted to mass, this is as opposed
to sensible heat that you can sense or feel. It can come in
gaseous forms such as methane, NO2 or water vapor, or solid
forms such as particulate matter such as the combustion byproducts of
burning coal or other petrochemicals. Latent heat is
often described as air pollution which has many deleterious effects on
human, animal and plant health and reproduction.
Problems associated with latent heat are a direct consequence of population density sufficient to overcome nature's ability to absorb or mitigate these sources. Yet many cities around the world have made great strides in reducing the levels of latent heat by commercial and industrial policy. A great example is the US city of Los Angeles, which was known for smog in the 80's but since then has greatly improved the atmosphere for its citizens.
Latent heat sources must be identified and mitigated over a period of decades to effect a rebalancing with the natural environment. Mitigation methods include both source remediation, such as improved sewer drafting, and mechanical methods of filtering air at the source such as the use of GSE large format air cleaners, or roadway modifications.
The INdRA latent heat and air pollution consultancy is a short to long term program (2-25 years) designed to identify and mitigate sources of latent heat and physical particle pollutants.
The focus is upon industrial, commercial, and residential sources of emissions such as methane, NO2, water vapor and other forms of latent heat which affect local and regional weather.
The program includes extensive analysis of primary and secondary sources, leading to the formulation of legislative policies for both remediation and mitigation.
The INdRA Consultative Process:
Typical INdRA Environmental Projects:
Hydrology Mapping : Program design, methods, objectives and metrics:
This program is designed to generate a dynamic catalog of local or regional water sources, categorized by salinity, flows, renewability, and hygienic state. Longitudinal studies of secondary and primary sources are considered for periods sufficient to incorporate the effects of sea surface temperature fluctuations such as El Niño, as well as synoptic watershed variations.
The objective of this data collection is to identify sources, cycles and frailties of humidity sources. The deliverables of the program will include detailed flow maps of hydrological sources including arable and non-arable land.
This data is then used to understand wind intensity and wind flows in the region to facilitate land and water use recommendations designed to optimize wind flows.
Program objectives and metrics:
Secondary data is augmented with primary data sources collected by professional IR imaging professionals. Every attempt will be made to hire local or regional professionals. Methods, such as drones or fixed wing surveys, will be selected for effectiveness and cost efficiency.
This portion of the program will deliver a sufficiently detailed longitudinal thermal picture of the area to allow an understanding of heat sources and sinks sufficient to make recommendations.
A tutorial on Infrared Thermography
Utilization Mapping: Program methods and objectives:
Water usage is a misnomer in that the vast majority of water is simply cycled through a usage and then returned to the environment. The change in the water volumes due to seepage or evaporation are generally zero sum.
Yet, if the pot-ability or potential usage profile of the water is changed by usage this is viewed as off-stream usage.
Utilization mapping methods depend upon the ultimate usage of the data.
Off-stream usage data is applicable to both regional profiling and cross border usage analysis. Off-stream usage includes water consumption, via changes in hygienic or water quality status, such as domestic, agricultural, or industrial usages which change the status of the water.
In-stream usage data, is usage that does not have a significant affect on the potable or hygienic nature of the water, such as usage by hydro-electric facilities.
This data is most relevant for usage in determining cross border values, as although volume may not change flow intensity can be of significant importance as water flows across borders.
The primary sources of usage data, field and user surveys, are combined with secondary sources, (government , NGO, etc.) are analyzed alongside tertiary or derived sources such as agricultural production. The deliverables are longitudinal historical analysis and usage predictions for the coming decades.
This consultancy is designed to work directly with local, regional and national legislators through various agencies and commissions.
The primary deliverables from an INdRA environmental consultancy is a series of detailed reports. These reports will include a wide range of data analysis, feasibility studies, and hard legislative recommendations.
Legislative guidelines will provide sufficient background information on important stakeholder concerns such as best practices, efficiency and effectiveness historical information, cost estimates, time lines, community impact statements, and model legislation.
Typical recommendations include zoning laws, business development guidelines, commercial, residential and agricultural guides, and infrastructure projects.
INdRA project personnel will act in an explicitly advisory capacity for insurance and legislative purposes. Where necessary appointments, temporary and open, will be accepted to address political or administrative requirements.
Depending upon the nature of the challenges being addressed, INdRA
staffers will employ a variety of project management techniques.
Scrum ban, benefits realization management, and Prince2 are the primary
project management approaches.
Our objectives are to move projects forward with sufficient transparency that stakeholders can easily report and justify progress to their constituents.
IINdRA will supply world class subject matter experts to weigh in at all stages of the projects implementation. These SME's will be on contract to review important elements of any project. Those elements of most concern are structural implementation, industrial design, resource acquisition, and standards adherance.
Environmental Pollution Effects on Humans
We know that pollution causes not only physical disabilities but also psychological and behavioral disorders in people.
The following pollution effects on humans have been reported:
Air Pollution Effects
- Reduced lung functioning
- Respiratory Irritation
- Asthma attacks
- Increased respiratory disease
- Reduced energy levels
- Headaches and dizziness
- Disruption of endocrine, reproductive and immune systems
- Neurobehavioral disorders
- Cardiovascular problems
- Premature death
Water Pollution Effects
Waterborne diseases caused by polluted beach water:
- Rashes, ear ache, pink eye
- Respiratory infections
- Hepatitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach aches
Conditions related to water polluted by chemicals (such as pesticides, hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals etc.):
- Cancer, incl. prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Hormonal problems that can disrupt reproductive and developmental processes
- Damage to the nervous system
- Liver and kidney damage
- Damage to the DNA
- Exposure to mercury (heavy metal):
In the womb: may cause neurological problems including slower reflexes, learning deficits, delayed or incomplete mental development, autism and brain damage
In adults: Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, and even death
Water pollution may also result from interactions between water and contaminated soil, as well as from deposition of air contaminants (such as acid rain)
Damage to people may be caused by fish foods coming from polluted water (a well known example is high mercury levels in fish)
Damage to people may be caused by vegetable crops grown / washed with polluted water (author’s own conclusion)
Soil Pollution Effects
- Causes cancers including leukemia
- Lead in soil is especially hazardous for young children causing developmental damage to the brain
- Mercury can increase the risk of kidney damage; cyclodienes can lead to liver toxicity
- Causes neuromuscular blockage as well as depression of the central nervous system
- Also causes headaches, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rash
Contact with contaminated soil may be direct (from using parks, schools etc.) or indirect (by inhaling soil contaminants which have vaporized)
Soil pollution may also result from secondary contamination of water supplies and from deposition of air contaminants (for example, via acid rain)
Contamination of crops grown in polluted soil brings up problems with food security
Since it is closely linked to water pollution, many effects of soil contamination appear to be similar to the ones caused by water contamination
Environmental Pollution Effects on Animals
- Acid rain (formed in the air) destroys fish life in lakes and streams
- Excessive ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun through the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere which is eroded by some air pollutants, may cause skin cancer in wildlife
- Ozone in the lower atmosphere may damage lung tissues of animals
Effects of Pollution on Animals - Water Pollution
- Nutrient pollution (nitrogen, phosphates etc) causes overgrowth of toxic algae eaten by other aquatic animals, and may cause death; nutrient pollution can also cause outbreaks of fish diseases
- Water pollution effects, oil duck Oil Coated Duck
- Chemical contamination can cause declines in frog biodiversity and tadpole mass
- Oil pollution (as part of chemical contamination) can negatively affect development of marine organisms, increase susceptibility to disease and affect reproductive processes; can also cause gastrointestinal irritation, liver and kidney damage, and damage to the nervous system
- Mercury in water can cause abnormal behavior, slower growth and development, reduced reproduction, and death
- Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may cause declines, deformities and death of fish life
-Texcessive sodium chloride in water may kill animals
We also assume that some higher forms of non-aquatic animals may have similar effects from water pollution as those experienced by humans, as described above
Effects of Pollution on Animals - Soil Pollution
- Can alter metabolism of microorganisms and arthropods in a given soil environment; this may destroy some layers of the primary food chain, and thus have a negative effect on predator animal species
- Small life forms may consume harmful chemicals which may then be passed up the food chain to larger animals; this may lead to increased mortality rates and even animal extinction
Environmental Pollution Effects on Trees and Plants
- pollution effects, acid rain damaged trees Trees Damaged by Acid Rain
- Acid rain can kill trees, destroy the leaves of plants, can infiltrate soil by making it unsuitable for purposes of nutrition and habitation
- Ozone holes in the upper atmosphere can allow excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun to enter the Earth causing damage to trees and plants
- Ozone in the lower atmosphere can prevent plant respiration by blocking stomata (openings in leaves) and negatively affecting plants’ photosynthesis rates which will stunt plant growth; ozone can also decay plant cells directly by entering stomata
- May disrupt photosynthesis in aquatic plants and thus affecting ecosystems that depend on these plants
- Terrestrial and aquatic plants may absorb pollutants from water (as their main nutrient source) and pass them up the food chain to consumer animals and humans
- Plants may be killed by too much sodium chloride in water
- Plants may be killed by mud from construction sites as well as bits of wood and leaves, clay and other similar materials
- Plants may be killed by herbicides in water; herbicides are chemicals which are most harmful to plants
- May alter plant metabolism and reduce crop yields\
- Trees and plants may absorb soil contaminants and pass them up the food chain
Environmental Pollution Effects on Wider Environment
- Apart from destroying the aquatic life in lakes and streams, acid rain can also corrode metals, damage surfaces of buildings and monuments, and cause soil acidification.
- Pollution of water may cause oxygen depletion in marine environments and severely affect the health of whole ecosystems.