INdRA

Interior Natural Desert Reclamation and Acclimatization project

Geo-engineering Region by Region

      Redefining Acts Of God

 

 

Development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,

   

 

INdRA    The water cycle revisited:

Conservation is essential, and deadly!

A brief introduction to the culture of Bio-recharge.


by Garee Henderson, Ph.D. AD PM
April  8, 2014
Research Director

INDRA Project
Alexandria, Virginia USA
 
 


Cities and regions should not conserve water...they should be pumping as much water as possible through local taps and fountains.  Counter-intuitive, yes! 

Yet, if cities focus on bio-recharge, as opposed to conservation, legislators can manage most local and regional water problems in less than a human generation."Watercyclesummary" by John Evans and Howard Periman, USGS - http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Watercyclesummary.jpg#/media/File:Watercyclesummary.jpg  Acts of God, such as atmospheric heat, drought, desertification, flooding, and storms can come under strong human influence through the use of bio-recharge as opposed to conservation.

Bio-recharge, a term that I am introducing in this article, is a culture, like recycling or conservation, based upon the science of maintaining, managing, and repairing regional water cycles.  I chose the term bio-recharge, because it is descriptive, but also because a Google search for the term bio-recharge only points to various types of hair products, in December 2015, at least on the first 100 entries.  Please don't hesitate to tell me what you think of the concept.

The water cycle is our planets' naturally evolved flows of water from the atmosphere to the ground.  The primary components of the water cycle are universal, and they include; rain, evaporation, groundwater, clouds, wind, and atmospheric metrics such as relative humidity, temperature, etc.

Bio-recharge techniques are water/energy flow management via regional geo-engineering.  Bio-recharge techniques include evaporation, cloud enhancement, wind shaping, deep groundwater recharge, management of soil and plant life, and pollution control.  In this article I will outline legislative solutions, for legislators and other stakeholders, which implement bio-recharge techniques.

Traditional water/energy management techniques are generally based upon more infrastructure, resource import and waste export.  Bio-recharge is based upon optimizing existing infrastructure to enhance regional water/energy cycles, minimizing water/energy imports, and optimizing exports.

The ultimate objective of bio-recharge schemes is to put human population centers back in synchrony, with nature.  As I will discuss in this article, the growing dis-synchrony between human population concentrations and nature is largely responsible for the bulk of city infrastructure projects and goals, as well as regional desertification.. 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, Bio-recharge will, over time, result in greater cloud cover, predictable precipitation, and reduction of average atmospheric temperatures.  This is a not so radical, but new approach, to providing water for human populations, eschewing pipelines and sewers, depending on precipitation and groundwater recharge to provide sufficient water for even dense human or animal populations.   Sounds like "weather control!"  Well read on and I'll explain.

Synchronous environments are self sustaining, and provide many benefits, such as the impacts of the micro-biome, that our science has yet to discover.   As populations and locations become increasingly out of sync with nature, costs will continue to rise, weather will continue to become more fierce and unpredictable, and climate cycles will be forced to evolve, as evidenced today by the climate change controversy.  The natural evolution of climate cycles will require possibly thousands of years. 

During this\period, life on earth, will be beleaguer by increasingly dynamic shifts in weather and surface stability.  Bio-recharge can shift this natural evolution from a Darwinian scale to, (my personal favorite evolutionary thinker Lamarck), a much quicker Lamarckian scale. 

Darwinian scale evolution in response to environmental challenges, such as the realized value of long necks for giraffes, requires thousands of generations and random mutation.  While Lamarckian evolution, based upon both random mutation and epi-genetic inter-generational transfers, achieves the same results in perhaps, as few as hundreds of generations.

 I don't want to take sides on the political climate change debate, (although I think its ludicrous), most scientists agree that climate change, within reason, is not the problem.  It is that the rate of climate change, which appears to be counter-evolutionary, is simply too fast to allow mankind to adapt. 

If the global average temperature went up a couple of degrees over a century, or better yet a millennium, we would adapt and hardly notice any problems.  However, a 2 degree change which occurs over a decade or so, leaves us unable to adapt at reasonable cost, in other words SOL.

Bio-recharge can play a similar role in atmospheric evolution to the role played by epi-genetics in the evolution of life.  Epi-genetics is the currently accepted theory that conditions encountered during your life, can be passed to your children through flipping switches rather than modifying genes.  One well documented example of epi-genetic transfer, is the transfer of PTSD, [post traumatic stress disorder] , between generations. 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, The water cycle is an emergent phenomena.  I say this because the water cycle is comprised of the mutual interactions between actions, (like cloud formation and precipitation), and conditions.  The relevant conditions include things like the type and extent of ground covering plants, the holding capacity of soils, the conditions necessary for productive cloud formation, and many other variables. 

As any of these key variables change, the water cycle is also changed. Sometimes directly, such as the effects of atmospheric temperature changes by eruptions or explosions, or indirectly as in the effects of changes in live plant volume or type, such as the effects of cutting down a forest.

Bio-recharge allows each generation, based upon its emergent realities, to make incremental changes, to the fundamental nature of weather and climate systems, that the next generation will enjoy. Hopefully these changes will result in improvements from a long-term perspective, although I must exercise a note of caution here. 

Giving mankind a measure of control over regional weather, can have great, or less satisfying, effects.  However, the bio-recharge techniques that I will outline in this article, are scalable and tune-able.  That means that if the effect of these manipulations are too sharp, such as Phoenix suddenly adopting Seattle type rain, they can easily be managed via legislative actions, even when the terms of legislators is short. 

The more likely, and anticipated, results will be gradual and often measured.  This is due to the emergent nature of regional weather and climates.  Their are many influences from adjacent regions, that will play an enormous role in the ultimate effects of any regional water-cycle scheme. 

In short, bio-recharge schemes will be slowly emergent, yet if problems arise the systems can be modified in the short term, with none of the unknown permanent effects of the popular save the planet geo-engineering schemes.  This means that as more, and more, adjacent regions institute regional bio-recharge schemes, the effects will be synergistic.

I should point out, that I am not proposing anything supernatural.  So a desert city with inadequate water flows, will only see positive effects, after significant bio-recharge improvements in adjacent regions, will the desert city be successful in generating significant modifications to local climate.

As city populations grow, life's essentials are increasingly precious.   Water, energy prices and supplies will continue to fluctuate dangerously. Distant sources of water/energy are, and will, increasingly become less and less viable.

I should also clarify, at this point, why I seem to conflate energy and water.  This is purposeful, due to my assertion that water is just another form of energy, with special properties for sure, but water and energy are essentially the same (E=MC2). 

Water can easily be converted to other forms of energy, for example hydro power is highly scalable, consequently any substantial gravity powered water flow, such as rain or water flows, can be converted to kinetic or electrical energy.  Many rural farmers are starting to tap into electrical power from small scale hydro-electrical systems, running from the gravity based water flows of streams or rivers.  With enhanced precipitation small scale hydro-electric projects in cities could provide local energy for street lights, and other safety equipment, independent of the grid. Rain is the natural source of using gravitational energy to redistribute water widely, over the surface of our planet.

Many cities today are full of fountains and water evaporation systems in the still unchanging desert.  What I am discussing here is the industrialization of bio-recharge.  Converting normal incidental evaporation to evaporation done on an industrial scale. Every one will be required to participate.  Every house, building, or farm, will be focused upon geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, evaporation and groundwater recharge.

Bio-recharge will become a culture, which influences the thinking, and the focus, of millions of individuals.  Bio-recharge, implemented via legislation, will increase the level of water-cycle enhancement by, as much as, 5,000%.  Houses, apartment buildings, factories, stadiums, and airports will all contribute to the successful implementation of bio-recharging the regional water-cycle.

If you're a stakeholder in the management of city resources, and you want to implement bio-recharge technics, you may encounter some stiff opposition, due to the cost burden, (of retrofitting and new equipment), involuntarily placed on all citizens.  Yet, effective legislation and legislators will, over time, move their region or your communities toward greater, and greater resilience and a balanced water-cycle.

The problems I will address in this article:

1. Water costs crisis:

2. Water quality depletion:

3. Water availability critical challenges:

 

Water Costs Crisis:

One symptom of water cost problems, highlights the larger problem.  Thousands of Americans' taps and toilets, of the poor and middle-class,  are cut-off by local water utilities for non-payment every day.  This is largely due to the high, and increasing, cost of municipal water.

It is the high cost of water distribution that is behind high water bills. The primary costs of water service are the building and maintenance of water infrastructure.

Water, the very "staff of life" just like clean air should, and could, be free, a part of the basic social contract with society. 

A funny water supply joke:

 A man went to visit his 90 year old grandfather and while eating the breakfast of eggs and bacon prepared for him, he noticed a film-like substance on his plate. So he says, “Grandfather, are these plates clean?”

His grandfather replies, “Those plates are as clean as cold water can get them, so go on and finish your meal.” That afternoon, while eating the hamburgers his grandfather made for lunch, he noticed many little black specks around the edge of his plate so again he asked, “Grandfather are you sure these plates are clean?” Without looking up from his burger, the grandfather says, “I told you those dishes are as clean as cold water can get them, now don't ask me about it anymore.” Well, later that day, they were on their way out to get dinner.

As he was leaving the house, grandfather's dog who was lying on the floor started to growl and would not let him pass. “Grandfather, your dog won't let me out.” Without diverting his attention from the football game he was watching, his grandfather shouted, “Coldwater, get out of the way!”
Detroit and Philadelphia have made recent headlines, for large scale water turn-offs.  Water supplies shut-off, due to growing water bills, damages the health and hygiene of mostly poor people worldwide. Billions of, primarily poor people, live every day with insufficient supplies of clean water. 

A Bio-recharge legislative and popular culture can reduce the cost of providing water to cities to 10% of current costs, lowering or eliminating water bills.  This problems significance is made clear when we realize that 20% of world energy consumption is devoted to the movement of water.

"Drew Walker knows what it's like not to have running water. The young African American woman stood up at a recent gathering of concerned citizens and told her story of living through multiple water shutoffs as a teenager. She said she often didn't bathe before school, had body odor, and sometimes had to shower in the homes of neighbors, friends or family, an experience she says was degrading."

Water quality depletion:

The problems of water quality and water availability are even more pernicious. For centuries girls, around the world, have been denied educations because they must spend so much time bringing water, often having to walk over a mile multiple times each day carrying heavy water containers, to their families.  Even as the UN's development goals to decrease global poverty are met, the burden on poor people of providing clean water continues to grow. 

The traditional heavy infrastructure solutions for providing water in cities, like dams, reservoirs, and distribution pipe systems, are simply not sufficiently scalable to meet the growing needs of cities.  Each building, hut or home should be resilient and able to collect solar energy and rainwater sufficient to meet its needs.  Think of the costs of providing water service in a Nairobi slum.

We must also address the real emergent water problems of today, as they relate to terrorism and endemic corruption.  Through out this article I will focus on the potential impacts of terrorist acts on the supply of water, energy, sewage, and even trash collection. 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, Endemic corruption , based upon the view that corruption is defined as distance from the ideal or legislated standards, does not require malfeasance or personal financial gain.  Through-out the world, people are assigned to key positions, not based upon competence, but instead based upon nepotism, convenience, sloth, political expediency or the ability to win votes or time pressures.  While everyone can make mistakes, the lack of a specific technical knowledge, is a mistake magnifier.

 For example, If you doubt trash collection is an emergent potential impact of terrorism or endemic corruption, you don't need to look further than Lebanon, (2015), to see the modern day impacts of political, inadequate or incompetent  city management. 

Technical infrastructure control is evolving, and often in-exact.  This means that judgment is increasingly important in key systems control.  I think of George Jetson, the 60's cartoon character designed to represent the future, whose job was to press a button at just the right time.  His entire desk consisted of that button, and he was paid based upon the quality of his judgment.  Many control systems today are not that far from George's tasks, and the results of bad judgment can be critical.

Water availability critical challenges:

My vision is to build resilient cities and resilient homes.   Resilience is achieved when homes and buildings are no longer completely dependent on centrally supplied resources, such as electricity, water, and waste disposal.

"A man may well bring a horse to the water but he cannot make him drink". John Heywood, English dramatist & epigrammist (1497 – 1580)

Yet, another potentially critical emergent threat is cyber, and physical, attacks on city infrastructure.  Water and electrical distribution systems have been the first target of these attacks.   I will talk more about the potential impacts of illicit or ingeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, competent acts which can challenge municipal and regional water/energy distribution systems, later in this article.  I mention it here because through this article I hope to extoll the virtues of resilient homes and cities. 

Jared Ferris of the daily signal, reports: February 19, 2014, "Just after midnight on April 16, 2013, someone slipped into underground tunnels and cut the phone lines running to the PG&E Metcalf power substation near San Jose, California. Then two snipers proceeded to fire over 100 rounds into the substation in 19 minutes, knocking out 17 transformers. The electric company managed to prevent a widespread blackout, but security officials fear the attack could be a dry run for a larger scale terrorist attack."

Centrally supplied resources must be constantly viewed as un-natural, potentially dangerous, risk laden and costly, as legislators and citizens evaluate their options.  This is a real and present danger, and all legislators, must protect their constituents by leading the way to resilience.

The emergent vulnerabilities of central resources to cyber attacks:

Municipal utilities are increasingly being controlled by SCADA systems, (supervisory control and data acquisition).  These SCADA control programs can control many key network resources. The impacted networks are generally electrical grids, water distribution systems, sewage, and safety systems such as street lighting and traffic signals. The reach of SCADA systems, normally includes the control of key systems equipment including; pumps, switches, transformers, and other key network equipment.  However, the control of SCADA systems is beginning to extend all the way into homes and buildings, controlling water heaters, air conditioning, and pumps.

SCADA systems are not generally designed to protect against cyber attacks, because they are designed to be operated in private networks which are not attached to the internet.  Yet, authorization systems can be broken, as is demonstrated in the news story below, and results in damage to key equipment, which is both costly and time consuming to repair.

Another vulnerability that SCADA systems face is the insertion of a WIFI connection, through a rogue router, (a router is generally a device that manages the flow of signals between users and the internet).  Such a connection could easily be obtained through social engineering techniques, applied to a desperate, corrupt, or incompetent authenticated staffer. 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, A recent experiment at a US security agency, was the random dropping of USB thumb-drives on the parking lot.  The results were that the majority of these unknown devices were picked up and inserted into classified computer systems. 

This was in effect using the social engineering technique, based on using basic human curiosity, to compromise a highly secure classified network. The technique was even more successful if the thumb-drives had the targeted organizations logo imprinted on the outer case.  Its widely rumored that it was this type of a social engineering scheme that allowed the Stuxnet virus to be released on Iranian nuclear centrifuges.

"Such an attack has already occurred, carried out on Maroochy Shire Council's sewage control system in Queensland, Australia.  Shortly after a contractor installed a SCADA system in January 2000, system components began to function erratically. Pumps did not run when needed and alarms were not reported. More critically, sewage flooded a nearby park and contaminated an open surface-water drainage ditch and flowed 500 meters to a tidal canal. The SCADA system was directing sewage valves to open when the design protocol should have kept them closed. Initially this was believed to be a system bug. Monitoring of the system logs revealed the malfunctions were the result of cyber attacks. Investigators reported 46 separate instances of malicious outside interference before the culprit was identified. The attacks were made by a disgruntled ex-employee of the company that had installed the SCADA system. The ex-employee was hoping to be hired by the utility full-time to maintain the system." :Slay, J.; Miller, M. (November 2007). "Chpt 6: Lessons Learned from the Maroochy Water Breach". Critical infrastructure protection (Online-Ausg. ed.). Springer Boston. pp. 73–82. ISBN 978-0-387-75461-1.

SCADA systems represent a trend towards private cloud based networks, which afford increased ability to incorporate more robust authentication and security into systems, as opposed to the limits based upon programs operated upon independent systems.  Yet these same evolving network systems designs effectively extend the reach of errors, or attacks. 

This phenomena pushes the domain of attackers from the private to the governmental level, where large amounts of funds and effort can be applied to developing methods of breaching and compromising such systems.  Of course we are seeing this today as most successful cyber attacks are being attributed to governments or professional developers,  as opposed to the individual, or small groups of individuals, ability to breech these systems. 

The result is that governments, and other well funded groups, are developing major abilities to develop cyber attacks as a form of warfare.  This means that the resilience of cities and individuals, although important today, will become critical in the not to distant future.  A day will, all to quickly, arrive that brings back conflict, albeit virtual conflict, where centralized resources are subject to numerous and sophisticated attacks, as one groups effort to impose its will on another group or society.

Failures caused by terrorism, incompetence, or natural disasters, can and often are international in scope.   A recent electrical grid failure (blackout), which started in the US mid-west, quickly migrated to Canada, and from Canada to New York.   Resources such as power or water are nearly immune to political boundary control.  Water flowing, or ebbing, across international borders has been a reality for centuries.  Yet, today with the growth of cities the potentially dire impacts of resource degradation can easily flow across borders as well.

The questions that I ask, and societies must ask themselves, is evaporation being valued as a source of rain?  Is groundwater adequately protected from malfeasance or benign neglect?  Resilience is the primary goal of the bio-recharge projects that I will discuss.

Bio-recharge can make cities and households resilience a reality around the world.  Bio-recharge is a culture of citizens depending on, and therefore caring for, and about, the natural water-cycle.  Bio-recharge, (combined with solar collection, waste recycling, and other forms of alternative energy), will allow resilient scalable cities.  Cities that can focus municipal tax dollars on less pedestrian needs, such ask education, income guarantees, and housing.

Power and water service disruption can be deadly for city dwellers. in 2003 fifteen hundred people were killed by a combination of extremely hot weather, and power disruptions in Paris France. 

It is estimated that 70,000 people have died due to infrastructure failures in Europe, during the last decade.

The widespread adoption of bio-recharge techniques will calm, and make more predictable,  the weather, while resilient living programs must help citizens to install rain-water collection, geo-thermal heating and cooling, methane capture and passive and active solar solutions.

During Christmas dinner (2015),  I got into a lively conversation defending my assertion, that cities can't afford competent policing.  I'm a bit of a bomb thrower, especially at family functions.  The topic came up as we reviewed the seemingly increase in police malfeasance, and incompetence. 

With all deference to the current police forces, a better educated police force expects higher pay, given the risk of their chosen profession. And training current police to be psychologists and extraordinary judges of citizens and their, often dangerous, behavior is simply outside of current big city police budgets. This same logic also applies to militaries around the world.

Bio-recharge represents a scheme, to give cities and citizens, better more secure lives, but at lower, not higher, costs. Widespread implementation of bio-recharge schemes, will allow cities to eliminate water bills, and make each building or household, cheaper to maintain, and more secure from many of the looming threats that I will discuss below.

 

Definitions:
Precipitation-shed

The recently discovered  pattern of precipitation to fall in specific areas out of synchrony with local evaporation volumes.  A natural pattern that steers precipitation to one area from water evaporation in surrounding areas.

 

Bio-recharge A set of techniques designed to stabilize or improve local and regional water-cycles.  Techniques include; evaporation enhancement and management, deep groundwater recharge, and soil carrying capacity management.
Water-cycle The naturally evolved process of water movement from the ground by evaporation, and return to the ground by precipitation. The water-cycle includes; clouds, surface water and groundwater. The water-cycle is analogous to the flow of blood in the human body, where blood moves through, not out of, the body.
Water Shed An area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.

Secondary environmental consequences of damaged water cycles:

The US has just completed its worse fire season in recorded history.  This record breaking fire year, is one of the three worst fire years, during the last decade, in recorded history.  Nearly 10 million acres of forest, including many old growth forests, have gone up in flames around the world. This is a sad testimony to the impact that human cities are having on the ecosystem. 

Widespread adoption of bio-recharge will, over a generation or two, tend to mitigate the environmental conditions that lead to both wildfires and the lightning strikes that start so many fires. 

More evenly distributed precipitation, will tend to mitigate the drought conditions at the root of many wildfire problems.  Lightning generally occurs when a warm air mass meets a much cooler air mass.  The consequence of these collisions is huge amounts of energy being released as the warm air battles the cold mass.  This energy is then built-up in clouds, leading to lightning strikes, which are one of the ways that nature redistributes these massive energy build-up's, another method of energy dispersion is precipitation. .  The more balanced water cycle will distribute the cloud energy build-up's, addressing one of the root causes of lightning and fires.

Worldwide people spent $200 million, each week, fighting wildfires.

When infrastructure fails, resilient homes and businesses, enabled by adoption of bio-recharge techniques, will be limited but not completely cut off from key resources.  With reduced power,(which can be alleviated with adequate storage), lights and communications systems can continue to operate, While with applied regional bio-recharge techniques, combined with rainwater collection, water for consumption and hygiene will be largely unaffected. 

The potential risks of infrastructure failures, combined with the lack of resilience of people and infrastructure, were clearly displayed during the last big California earthquake.  I happened to be in the area, attending a conference, when the earthquake struck.  One of the first visual calamities was the failure of grid based traffic control systems. 

Roadway lighting, traffic lights and many other critical systems went dark, both increasing the terror of the disaster, as well as leading to sharp increases in roadway collisions between cars and with pedestrians.   If these systems were powered by traffic flows, (as our parent company GSE has been promoting for decades), or small scale local hydro projects, many thousands of dollars, and more than a few lives, would have been saved.

I lived for years on a small farm in Clifton VA, (located in Fairfax county Virginia, which is one of the richest counties in the US), when any major storm (snow or wind) developed, all too often all grid electrical power would be lost for up to 1 week.  We would also lose water service, because we depended entirely on an electrical well pump. After a couple of days, gas for the generators run-out. If you ever imagined hell on earth in the richest part of America, this was it.  I should add, for clarity and fairness, our power problems were exacerbated by the fact that all electrical power came from a long supply cable, because the house was located far from the roadway.

A bio-recharge legislative and popular culture will allow the trillion dollar portion of government budgets spent on sewer systems, water distribution, electrical systems and administrative costs, to fall precipitously over a human generation.

Experts project that by 2050 roughly 70% of all people will live in cities.  This means that we are fast approaching the actual limits of our current ecology's' ability to support human populations. 

Nature has soft limits:

We must face the fact that nature has a soft limiting constant, similar to the mathematical Pi ( ), that determines the natural carrying capacity per square mile.  The carrying capacity, or maximal load, reflects the natural limits on group hygiene in the forms of unassisted waste disposal, burials, water supply, water discharge, and in the general case to provide enough food to support the population.  

As more and more people try to drink from the same drinking fountain, the value of access increases steadily.  This is what's happening due to increasing city populations trying to drink from the same fountain.  In this case the fountain is city infrastructure. Prices are therefore mechanism that implements structural resource limits.  As resources become more precious, prices rise.

Paul R. Ehrlich developed the I = PAT equation to determine the carrying capacity of a human population, on a given amount of land.   I = P ∙ A ∙ T
I = P ∙ A ∙ T  where:
I is the impact on the environment resulting from consumption
P is the population number
A is the consumption per capita (affluence)
T is the technology factor"

An appropriate natural analogy is the territory of a big solitary cat, like cheetahs or mountain lions, in that such an animal requires a minimum of un-challenged territory for successful predation, mating and offspring rearing.

While this may seem a bit too Malthusian, (Thomas Malthus predicted growing  food insecurity, but was proven wrong by agricultural technology),  all I can say is that I sincerely hope so. Yet there are emergent environmental conflicts looming, between life and land,  as human and livestock populations continue to grow out of synchrony with nature. 

A United Nations report in 2014 said: "Delhi has become the world's second most populous city, second only to Tokyo, more than doubling its population since 1990 to 25 million".  The population of the US is predicted to increase by 100 million by 2050, while the population contained in US cities will grow by 125 million in that same period.

As cities grow both steadily, and in fits and starts, due to anthropogenic pressures such as climate change and conflict, the municipal policy response to increasing scarcity and rising prices is often conservation, markets, or conquest. 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, Conquest is less and less viable due to international economic integration.  The international conflict logic generally applied, by citizens, today is summarized in the often heard statement.  "I don't want to fight with China because they make inexpensive toasters".  Gives clarity to the reasons that resource conflicts, such as water distribution and pollution control, are extremely resistant to traditional military or economic sanctions.

The power of any leader, or small groups of leaders, to exercise substantial power to resolve or mitigate essential resource conflicts, has and will continue to wane. International economic integration, conflicting political goals, and the inability of contemporary science to convince the less liberal populace, of the potentially disastrous impacts of climate change, have all led to the growing impotence of world leaders.

While the impacts of pollution are known to ignore international boundaries, governments must walk on egg shells to avoid the even worse economic impacts which would likely result from any level of international conflict.  A good example is the cold fight between the governments of Afghanistan and Iraq over water flows, which have led to many hot words but much cooler responses.

Markets where resources are controlled by various pricing mechanisms are, politically un-tenable, for key resources, even in the medium term.  Allowing Adam Smith's "invisible hand" of self interest, or Darwinian "Survival of the fittest", (innate un-seen, un-legislated and often morally compromised  forces which guide the decisions of individual citizens), to determine key resource prices has proven to be increasingly disastrous. 

Going forward as technology increasingly limits the ability of the average person to make a living, essential resources, such as water and power, will necessarily and increasingly be viewed as fundamental rights, a part of Rousseau's social contract, not items of consumption. 

Democratic and authoritarian governments will face, and have been facing for a long time, vast public discord, when essential resource prices exceed the reach of the average, or even below average, families ability to pay. 

High level, often secret, government committees around the world, have long realized the looming impacts of climate based immigration.  The conclusions of these influential groups has been that climate shifts, (i.e. unpredictable precipitation and groundwater shortages), that are noticeable today will continue to drive people to the cities, and immigration from less developed regions into their territories.  This is often the invisible hand behind increasingly hawkish immigration policies, and increased spending on border controls.

Bread:

The rallying cry of the Jacobins', republicans' and sans-culottes', during the terrors of the French revolution was "bread".

The recent "Arab spring" phenomena which has swept away many autocratic middle eastern governments, was largely the result of essential resource pricing, often based upon international competition for key resources.  Once again the call of the mob was bread.  Meanwhile as rising economic inequality highlights the fundamental unfairness of economic systems which are ultimately based upon inheritance, special skills, or above average intelligence or effort, alert radicals are seizing these endemic problems as the rallying cries of democratic or violent revolt. 

Bread, which has also been the rallying cry of many contemporary revolts, translates into essential resource pricing.  It has been theorized that one of the main reasons behind the vast increases in philanthropy of western billionaires' is the emergent fear that the population will turn against the most well known industry kings, in both pre and actual revolutions.

With conquest and pricing off the table, the only option left seems to be resource conservation!  Yet, what I hope to convince you of is that, conservation is often the wrong, or at least a highly incomplete, ineffective, limited and short-sighted, approach. 

When essential resources are limited by the state, it follows the logic of the popular quip "when the rich catch a cold, the middle classes catch pneumonia, and the poor are mowed down by trucks".  

While the value of a resources is at least partially determined by the citizens and their situations.  I am reminded of my favorite economics joke.  A man walks past a shop and admires a parrot sitting in the window.  He goes into the shop and inquires about the price of the parrot.  The proprietor says "1 million dollars", the potential customer is floored, and hints that the proprietor is crazy if he thinks someone will pay him such a sum, for a cute but rather ordinary parrot. 

A couple of days later, the man passes the shop again, and the parrot is gone.  He goes and asks the proprietor, "how much did you sell the parrot for?"  The proprietor insists that he got a million dollars for the bird, he also interjects that the buyer did not have enough cash to make the purchase, so he had accepted 2 half million dollar chickens instead.

The point is that we can determine or construct value and therefore the costs of vital resources, yet we must be clear-eyed about the actual role that prices play in the daily lives of citizens.

Poverty is defined, most appropriately, as lives that can not cope with the unpredictable challenges of daily life.  Where a bad tranny (transmission) in your truck, leads to job loss, and hungry poorly educated children.  A sharp increase in the price of essential resources can indeed be deadly and life altering for the poor.

Conservation is at its root an increase in the value, and therefore cost, of often critical resources.   When home owners are required to conserve water or energy, the long and medium term implementation mechanism is price increases.

When farmers are required to conserve water, without substantial improvements in irrigation techniques, the result is higher costs and lowered outputs, which are also effective food price increases, based upon the law of supply and demand.

Next, I will examine and compare, current systems of water/sewage management, and the technical plans required to implement bio-recharge schemes.

The current city water-cycle.

The problem is that the current model for supplying water and hygiene to a growing population is import/export infrastructure.  Electrical grids, roadways, sewer systems, dams, reservoirs, air conditioning systems, storm run-off, and water treatment are examples of these timeless and growing phenomena.

According to the a-priori "Gare hypothesis", which posits that the concentration of energy consumption/conversion in cities attracts regional water vapor, robbing adjacent regions of precipitation, and thereby modifying long term regional climates, with only slightly noticeable affects on weather, yet substantial effects on regional climate. 

This hypothesis is based upon the conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics),  the authors' (Garee Henderson, Ph.D.) independent theory of energy (E:C : Energy is proportional to change), and the generally accepted heat island effect.

Dr. Randall Cerveny of Arizona State University, said "We knew that cities have an effect on local weather with urban heat islands and so forth, and people are pretty sure that we're having a general global effect with carbon dioxide," 

The "Gare hypothesis" takes this further in predicting that the rise of energy transfers out of cities, as evidenced by the heat island effect, is systematically generating precipitation-sheds, (uneven regional precipitation), and consequently desertifying surrounding  regions.

Heat islands and energy conservation are both discussed later.  The Gare hypothesis is supported by years of statistical analysis of historical (population centers and suburbs) temperature variations, and desertification, in the US and Africa.  It has been validated by this data analysis. 

For more information on the E:C theory please consult the monograph "Meta-Energetics, 1999 by Garee Henderson, Ph.D..  For more information on the "Gare Hypothesis", please visit our website: INDRA-Rain.com.

Cities are negative drains:

Large cities are negative drains, net defiler's of the quality of natural resources, where natural resources such as clean fresh water, ecologically sustainable soils, and "clean" air are systematically degraded by unnecessarily concentrated and incompetent anthropogenic actions, combined with insufficient controls, and ecological leadership.

Clean water, from pristine mountain springs and melting glaciers are defiled, with concentrated residential, agricultural and commercial human waste products, such as concentrated organic waste and chemicals.  Clean mountain air is polluted with both sensible and latent energy.  This energy is realized mostly as heat, pollution, particulates, and greenhouse gasses such as methane and CO2.  

I speak of the reduction of quality, not quantity, of natural resources because I seek to address the fundamental mis-conception that resources like water or energy are consumed, as opposed to being defiled, as in water pollution, or converted as in the conversion of fuel to heat and pollution.

Significant volumes of degraded water, after all too often minimal processing, are pumped into nearby streams, rivers, lakes and oceans.  For example 55% of all urban run-off, from rain or floods, is channeled un-processed to nearby water dumps, once again this can be rivers, lakes or oceans.  This run-off is contaminated with road oil, trash, sewage, and anything else that happens to be on the street when it rains.  This run-off is a major periodic stress on the environment, but many cities see no other alternatives.

Cities have constructed extensive water import/export infrastructures, which are gradually drawing fresh water, polluting that water with chemicals, organic waste, micro-organisms and heat, then dumping it into streams, rivers, lakes and oceans, damaging the natural water cycle. Gradually polluting all of earth’s water resources. 

The annual maintenance of these water distribution systems is estimated to cost $200 billion worldwide. These same funds could be used for roadway maintenance, better educational systems and increased healthcare availability.

While loss through "normal leakage", (leaky pipes), of municipal water systems is typically as high as 50% of all clean water supplied.  Keep in mind that these costs are most significant to the poor, who often spend up to 20% of their incomes for water.

At this cost level over 780 million people around the world do not have access to clean drinking water.   Contaminated water accounts directly for more than 1/2 million deaths per year worldwide. While many millions are sickened or killed by water borne pathogens due to low water quality.

These problems could be largely eliminated, or at least significantly ameliorated, if bio-recharge techniques like rainfall enhancement schemes, based upon evaporation and deep groundwater recharge, combined with rainwater harvesting, were employed.

Large cities are responsible for significant volumes of clean fresh water being substantially eliminated from the regional hydrological cycles.  

Our planet has evolved a water-cycle, where water is cleaned by evaporation or groundwater leeching, and then redistributed as rainfall.  This cycle is evident when you look at a naturally populated forest or savanna.  When it comes to cities  "It's the survival of the biggest", in that larger cities rob smaller cities and extended suburbs of cloud cover and rain.

Rainfall then evaporation then more rainfall, creates enough clean potable water to support populations of millions of animals.  It could do the same for human an livestock populations. 

While the harms of water cycle interference by anthropogenic concentrations, are also evident in such metrics as the incidence of water borne illness and infections in cities, increasingly severe local and regional weather, and regional desertification.

This depletion of the water cycle plays a huge factor in our growing climate issues.  Bio-recharge  techniques, like industrial scale evaporation and deep groundwater management, will increasingly generate cloud cover and precipitation, which both blocks excessive  sunlight and traps the earths' core long wave radiated heat.

Bio-recharge is a medium to long term solution.  Even with competent implementation it will take many years for the real benefits, of bio-recharge schemes, to be noticeable to the general public.  However, the changes wrought by a bio-recharge culture will be semi-permanent, and once the major investments have been made, cities and regions will reap the benefits for decades, or even centuries.

"A society grows great when old men plant trees whose shade they know they shall never sit in."  ~  Greek proverb

Inadequate cloud cover is increasingly the cause of systematic desertification, violent weather, wildfires and long un-predictable  droughts. The atmospheric energy imbalances created by inadequate cloud cover, or increasingly sharp precipitation-shed effects, is also a contributing factor in extreme weather conditions worldwide. 

In many ways the increasingly imbalanced water cycle is at the heart of many conflicts and the increasingly treacherous  mass migrations from affected areas.  Despite the commonly held beliefs that religious certainty, or greed, is the source of regional conflicts, the reality is that most if not all conflicts can be, at least partially, attributed to regional climate changes. 

James Hansen said "As species are exterminated by shifting climate zones, ecosystems can collapse, destroying more species."

These changes cause mass migration to cities, as subsistence farmers find unpredictable weather to be an unreliable environment to grow food or raise animals.  As human populations understandably, and inevitably, shifts to cities, the surging energy concentrations of cities effectively decreases regional climate predictability and reliability, just as surely as a hot fireplace changes the airflow in a cool room.

Sewers work against the water cycle, and are not adequate evaporation sources, and therefore deplete the natural water cycle.

Graphic showing how the landscape works as a green filter, removing pollution as rainwater sinks into the ground.
Courtesy of the Chesapeake bay foundation
Evaporation is a surface phenomenon, largely a function of heat and kinetic energy.  Sewers, wastewater processing, and water distributions are inadequate sources of evaporation due primarily to their design.

The depth and temperature of a body of water is directly correlated to the evaporation rates, (all other variables held fixed).

If we consider the temperature and the flow of water, evaporation rates are directly correlated with temperatures. Cold or deep bodies of water discourage natural evaporation.

Pumping water into deep water dumps, rivers, lakes and oceans, suppresses the evaporation process and breaks the sustainable water cycle.

This is why traditional evaporation pools have large wind-blown surface areas, but shallow depths.

The degradation of the water, hygiene and other natural cycles are the normal, if not inevitable, cost of large concentrations of humans in cities.  Yet in each of these cases nature has provided solutions, for large more natural populations, such as grazing or foraging animals. 

Microbes and insects consume waste, soil and underground aquifers consume and detoxify excess water run-off, aquatic mammals, like beavers, can provide water storage and groundwater leeching, while leafy plants are natural air-conditioners.  Many rural communities are now seeking to re-introduce aquatic mammals to control flooding, and facilitate groundwater recharge.

The most impressive natural facility which is so often ignored as a source of water & energy resource management are bio-recharge techniques such as evaporation.  Evaporation and groundwater recharge facilitate natural widespread distribution of clean water, and groundwater absorption, which cleans the water and then stores it in aquifer's which are isolated from surface pollution sources, by virtue of their depths.  Water that leeches from the surface, through soil, is also naturally cleaned, as particulates are trapped in the soil and recycled by the micro-biome.

"When you drink the water, remember the spring". Chinese Proverb

 

The Actual Water Cycle:


geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, Water is rarely consumed, instead water is contaminated and then recycled into the environment.  

A California environmental pundit, said on CNN that it takes hundreds of gallons of water to to grow a single almond, pound of meat, or grain of wheat.  This is a terrible misstatement of the facts.   A pound of meat or an almond only requires the amount of water that the final product contains, water used in its growth has been recycled into the environment, and perhaps a single water molecule has been used by an individual plant many times during its growth

The popular mis-conception of "water exporting" through crops is based upon the erroneous assumption that every molecule of water used is then lost, so additional water must come from a new source.  Yet, regardless of the thousands of gallons of water used to grow a plant, the only water that is exported is the amount of water contained in the final product. An entire crate of oranges requires no more than a couple of gallons of local water when exported to a distant market.

Continuing the blood analogy, blood is recirculate through the body. The only time that blood is lost is through a wound which allows the blood to escape the body. Water is the blood of all life. Cities are wounds from which water is allowed to escape the system as opposed to being re-circulated. In the body blood is generated by various processes from food energy.  Cities generate new water by transfusions, from often distant sources.

The water that you drink today is a part of the original water supply that is theorized to have been, created with the formation of the planet.  Alternative theories see much planetary water as the product of co-evolution of life and mineral evolution, but that's a long story.  Nevertheless, it is a fact that, each drop has been consumed and then recycled trillions of times by plants, animals, and thermodynamic processes.

However, while water is rarely consumed, water quality is regularly consumed by usage.

Water quality is consumed. 

Water quality includes such metrics as the percentage of dissolved chemical and organic materials such as salt, bacteria and sometimes larger organisms such as spores or parasites'. Other contextual water quality degradation is heat, when hot water from power or industrial plants is dumped into large ecologically balanced water dumps, this heat can cause as many problems as chemical pollutants.

The defiled water, from many cities, lead to continental problems. Such as another phenomena, which applies particularly to agriculture but also haunts cities, is watershed pollution, which results in ocean or bay accumulations of organics leading to huge algae blooms or dead zones off the coasts.

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, Other important water quality metrics are temperature, polarity, location, elevation, and a few other esoteric qualities. Water is rarely consumed, while water quality is significantly reduced as it passes through cities.

Wrong-headed water policy:

This article is hopefully a step in correcting the views of water and water usage which are often leading policy experts in costly wrong directions. 

The objective of saving the regional water so often includes tremendous dense expensive energy expenditures, giant earth shaping infrastructure projects, and painful but misguided conservation schemes.

All the while we ignore what nature has provided; natural bio-recharge through evaporation and groundwater absorption which are inexpensive low energy solutions to most, if not all, water problems. 

Bio-recharge is the solar energy of water.  Let me explain, solar energy allows homes and businesses to be less dependent on the electrical grid.   Bio-recharge techniques, (rainwater capture, evaporation and groundwater management), allows homes and businesses to be less dependent on water grid, (clean water distribution and sewers).

Evaporation/groundwater management is a nearly universal solution:

Evaporation:


The natural bio-recharge solution is evaporation and groundwater absorption. 

Evaporation/rain cycles require a fraction of the energy required for channeling, piping, cleaning and other forms of water & sewage management.  Evaporation operates at real velocities similar to the movement of water in rivers or fast moving streams.  Just imagine the river of evaporation that rises after a big Chicago rainfall on a hot summer day, with flows comparable to the Mississippi river.

Evaporation is highly scalable, in that the carrying capacity of the atmosphere to hold water vapor is equivalent to that of the oceans. Evaporation is a reversible thermodynamic process, which allows for low energy phase changes.
Evaporation depends on thermal conditions as well as the current levels of water suspended in the atmosphere.
As a natural process, evaporation depends upon acceptable environmental conditions, such as relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, surface temperature, and latent energy levels.

The requirements of apparently ideal environmental conditions make evaporation appear to be a limited
solution.  Yet, evaporation occurs at almost any temperature, and sublimation (solid water to gas) occurs even during freezing conditions, albeit at a much reduced level. 

This means that evaporation management can be discounted but never ignored.  Keep in mind that it is high elevation snow and glacial water storage that are largely responsible for water flows during the spring and summer. These vast chilly water stores are enabled even at very low evaporation rates.

Gravity's role in evaporation is also important. The ebb and flow of atmospheric gases that we know as wind, is an effect of temperature differentials and gravity.  Wind is one of the most important factors in evaporation, just as clothes can be dried on a clothes line even on a cool day.

The low energy profile of evaporation allows the process to occur not only from dense insolation (sunlight), but also the long wave energy which originates from the residual heat energy, theorized to be, emanating from the earth's core, or even the energy released by cell oxidation during growth and homeostasis in plants and animals.

This allows evaporation to occur from plants, animals, soil and even mineral sources. There is a tremendous amount of evaporation occurring in cities, even without the application of bio-recharge schemes.  Water evaporates from the cups of coffee sipped at side walk cafes in Paris.  Yet, the slow desertification of agricultural and forested areas near cities is strong evidence that current evaporation levels are inadequate to maintain the water cycle.  Bio-recharge techniques are a necessary step to bring city dominated regions back in synchrony with nature.


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"Natural & impervious cover diagrams EPA" by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. "Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff." Document No. EPA 841-F-03-003. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Natural_%26_impervious_cover_diagrams_EPA.jpg#/media/File:Natural_%26_impervious_cover_diagrams_EPA.jpg


Groundwater:

Just as it is hard to get your mind around the fact that your body is mostly liquid water, it is equally difficult to comprehend that a significant portion of the planet is also water.  

When we think of water we think of oceans, rivers, and lakes, but the reality is that a major portion of fresh and brackish water is contained in the soil itself, both in soil and aquifers. 

The measure of the soil's ability to hold water is known as its carrying capacity, and the soil's carrying capacity is the major factor in both droughts and floods.

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, The carrying capacity of soil is largely determined by either natural or anthropogenic phenomena.  The natural phenomena include the life cycles of vegetation, animals and the micro biome.   The anthropogenic factors are the volume of impermeable structures such as roadways and buildings, and channeling to water dumps.

As life expands through growth, then contracts through death, the soil evolves to facilitate regeneration and growth. 

This system of soil growth which is one of the key factors that make life possible on our planet, is more than adequate to provide the energy and water recycling services of low density life, and energy absorption typical of the "Goldilocks zone" planet that is our earth.  When I have walked the savannas of Africa, where despite a plethora of life, there are no sewers or cemeteries, I rarely observed either dung or corpses. 

When there is a natural synchrony, many of todays fundamental services are not required, nor even imagined.  Yet, as populations continue to concentrate, what new requirements will become necessary to manage artificially. 

In psychology and neuro-biology there is a term "agnosia", which refers to internal senses or abilities that are not readily apparent,  until they are impaired or absent generally due to congenital defect or brain injury. 

In other words, while we think we have five senses, neuro-biology has documented almost thirty senses.  This list includes phenomena such as sense of balance, sense of pain, automatic face recognition, and the ability to recognize language.

For example, a common agnosia is PWD or [Pure Word Deafness], which challenges the fundamental notion that once you know a language you cannot fail to understand it.  PWD makes the ability to understand, even your native language, difficult or impossible even though your hearing is un-impaired.

I can imagine similar agnosia of large cities and farms.  As populations grow what new services will be required to maintain the live-ability of cities?

For example many large poultry and livestock operations, [factory farms], have found that general antibiotic usage is no longer optional, but instead becomes necessary for the effectiveness of the operation.  Similarly nearly universal  vaccinations are now required to ensure the health of large dense human populations.

What new fundamental services will become as necessary as water or sewer service today? 

As human or animal populations grow, services like artificial water supply, energy delivery infrastructure, waste disposal, traffic management, public education, public transit, air conditioning, physical and mental health care, policing and city management become critical. 

What's next...Domes? Atmospheric management, ground based cloud seeding, laser illumination, and hopefully destruction, of near space sourced falling objects.  Or protections from any range of harmful radiation such as electro-magnetic waves, solar flares, or nuclear fallout. 

When I was lecturing on communications systems design, to graduate students at NYU (New York University), in the 80's, I often asked my students to imagine if all of the invisible radio waves, including AM & FM radio, microwave, and satellite signals, suddenly became visible. 

It would be quite startling to see innumerable dynamic waves of light passing through your body at just this second.  I would also remind them of the meal that they had "nuked" in a microwave this morning.  Are we being "nuked" by the collective and emergent long term impacts of exposure to energetic waves from birth?

Ground water management to promote deep groundwater recharge:

Ground water management includes the recharge of aquifers, and management of fossil water resources.

The current model for the use of groundwater is similar to the use of surface water.  High quality water, free from most contaminants, is pumped from groundwater resources.  The water is then contaminated, and pumped or channeled into either treatment or into some large low evaporation body of water, such as an ocean or lake. This drain on groundwater leaves vast underground vacuums, which are increasingly realized as sink holes, subsidence and earthquakes.

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"Human welfare and ecological footprint" by Travelplannerbased on data from UN Development Programme and Global Footprint Network - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_welfare_and_ecological_footprint.jpg#/media/
File:Human_welfare_and_ecological_footprint.jpg
As water resources become more scarce due to drought, the exploitation of groundwater increases.  Yet, little thought is given to groundwater recharge.  The net volume of water that is returned to the atmosphere or groundwater, is directly related to the size of human or livestock populations, which in many cases is typically less than 50%.

Cities will by necessity find that groundwater management is critical to the longevity and stability of society.  As current middle-eastern conflicts illustrate so clearly, water is both the source of life and death.

During the French revolution the crowd called for Pain (bread)!  Water resources, both ground and atmospheric, are at the root of feeding any society.

Many future conflicts will revolve around groundwater resources.  For example, and unfortunately not unique today, Libya is pulling vast amounts of groundwater from underneath Egyptian soil.  As Nile flows are increasingly compromised by upstream users such as Sudan or Ethiopia, the value of groundwater will inevitably become pivotal to Egyptian and regional political stability.
   Around the world groundwater conflicts are brewing, or in many cases already defining the relationships between countries which share borders.

Successfully implemented bio-recharge schemes, will alleviate the pressure on cities, as more and more people discover that rural life can be both prosperous and comfortable.  We will see strong reverses in immigration to cities, perhaps allowing mankind to  dodge the bullet of unsustainable city growth, and its concomitant challenges.

How many of todays waves of thousands of immigrants from north Africa and the middle-easgeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, t are the results of water shortages? As atmospheric water and groundwater, are increasingly becoming more scarce and less predictable? Small scale and subsistence farmers are being driven to cities by our growing worldwide water insecurity.  Bio-recharge is the key to unlocking the natural fertility and fecundity of the earth.  Irrigated mono-cultural agricultural methods are just one more step toward hungry people worldwide.

City planners and managers must include groundwater recharge to be as important as water supplies or sewage. 

Impervious surfaces must increasingly become pervious.  Creating pervious roadways and parking lots, (pavements that allows water to seep through to the underlying earth), parking lots and roadways is established practice, not rocket science. 

Runoff from rains or flooding must be directly channeled to groundwater recharge.  Instead of storm drains channeling water to water dumps, this water will need to be directed to large seeps where the water is returned either to the atmosphere or groundwater. 

For example, if large sections of stadium, airport, theme park, shopping center, and industrial/commercial parking lots were designed to be constructed of permissible concrete, at lower grades than the surrounding environment, and then lipped to contain large shallow volumes of water, these vast mostly unused parking lots could add hundreds of millions of gallons to the regional water cycle, while minimizing the loss through water dump run-off.  Every park should have as extensive a solar powered fountain, as possible.

A side effect, perhaps good according to the local environmental conditions, is that using these veritable seas of concrete, (which reflect vast amounts of sunlight back into the atmosphere as heat), for bio-recharge instead will be quite dramatic.  As a result bio-recharge schemes will significantly decrease local atmospheric heat, especially in the summertime. Commercial and industrial concerns could also participate in such a scheme, with storm water runoff under the control of the business's management. Acts of God, such as atmospheric heat and drought, used to determine sickness and disease.  With effective bio-recharge will fall under the strong influence of mankind.

Tgeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, he result of the application of these and other bio-recharge techniques will be gradually increasing cloud cover, evaporation, groundwater recharge rates, and reductions of atmospheric energy imbalances that cause much dangerous weather, such as storms, floods, sand and wind storms, etc.

Citizens and industry will need to capture and store rainwater and flood water, with rain catchments and bio-recharge based municipal infrastructure.  Municipal construction guidelines, such as requiring that all seasonal parking lots be designed with pervious pavements and sufficient grading or other structures to facilitate the absorption and evaporation of heavy rain or flood waters, will over of time, provide robust, synchronous, regional water-cycles.

It would be reckless of me to present bio-recharge management as a panacea.  I will discuss the potential negative side effects of increased rainfall later in this document. 

The negative and potential risks of groundwater management and usage.

Groundwater is one of the most important and powerful of natural hydrological systems.  Groundwater is as important as precipitation, ocean currents (including gyres), oceans, and atmospheric holding capacity in the earths' hydrological (water/energy) cycles. 

Groundwater is held in three complementary reservoirs, surface (rivers and lakes), shallow (soil carrying capacity), and deep (aquifers).  Pollution of surface water is widely understood and continually monitored and studied for its impacts on the wider ecosystem. Yet pollution of shallow and deep groundwater resources, is harder to study and potentially as catastrophic as surface water pollution. 

Paving, construction and the leeching of chemicals into the soil, from roadways and industrial concerns, can effectively reduce the viability of soil as a store and detoxifying of water. Therefore groundwater management schemes can have affects on soil carrying capacity which will effect many generations of future populations. 

Effects such as flooding, especially flash flooding, are largely a function of the soil's carrying capacity.  Consequently poorly managed groundwater management schemes can increase flooding potentials and soil fertility and fecundity. 

Water held in the soil has both vertical and horizontal motions which can be modified by municipal groundwater management schemes.  The negative consequences of mis-management, of especially surface and shallow horizontal water mobility, can lead to unproductive swamps, and their concomitant side effects such as mosquitos, increased potential for deadly flash flooding, and reductions in soil fecundity.  The horizontal movement of both surface (runoff) and water trapped in soils must be carefully considered prior to the implementation of any large scale groundwater management schemes.

The vertical movement of groundwater can be perilous in either direction, up or down grade. Down grade movement of water can concentrate anthropogenic chemicals into groundwater reservoirs.   This can be caused by roadway runoff, leeching from roadways, municipal dumps and water management facilities.  Chemical contamination of groundwater resources can also be caused by the mismanagement of concentrates from both industrial and agricultural operations.

Upgrade vertical movement of groundwater can be equally perilous.  The primary form of anthropogenic upgrade vertical movement of water is wells. Without proper legislative and enforcement, residential, agricultural and commercial wells can have dire effects on the entire region. 

Underground groundwater lacks many of the natural remediation systems, such as microbial and sunlight based detoxification, found in surface water .  These resources are also difficult to monitor until the problem has moved from exposure to infection.

Water color is a natural warning system for both humans and animals.  Corpses around a watering hole will make other members of the species avoid that source of water in all but the most dire circumstances.

Yet, groundwater sources are hidden and difficult to evaluate until they are, in many cases, beyond remediation.  One poorly maintained well can pump sewage into an aquifer that serves millions around the region. 

Also, due to topographical characteristics the distance from ground to an aquifer can vary greatly.  This means that in one region, wells can range in depth by hundreds of feet.  The result of this phenomena is that shallow wells range from artesian, (a well in which water is under pressure; especially : one in which the water flows to the surface naturally),  to wells as deep as hundreds of feet.   The rule is that the shallower the well, the more it is exposed to surface pollution. 

However, surface pollution is not the only risk of wells.  The UN program designed to encourage well digging to supply water to the rural poor, resulted in millions of people being sickened, crippled or killed by naturally occurring arsenic.

Perhaps even more troubling is that each well dug in a region, is a potential source of groundwater pollution.  A single well user can by incompetence, and as a potential terrorist act, pollute the entire regional groundwater system. 

I had to replace the well on my farm a couple of years ago.  After getting some crazy $2-3,000 estimates from local well companies, I decided to look on YouTube to guide my DYI replacement.  I was able to replace a faulty well pump for a few hundred dollars. 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, Once again this was in one of the richest and heavily regulated counties, Fairfax county VA, in the US.  I was not required to place flow restriction devices, such as a check-valve, (a valve which restricts the flow to a single direction), nor to register the well with county officials.  In an ideal world, county officials should have be notified, and a county expert sent out to certify the well.  Especially since my farm also used a nearby underground septic system for waste disposal.

For example, when a well is constructed too close to a sewer, organic and chemical pollutants can be easily transferred to regional groundwater resources, affecting potentially millions of people.  It would be an easy, and very difficult to trace, plan by terrorists to introduce some harmful or toxic agent into the regional water supply, from the privacy of a farm or even a single house. 

Some conspiracy theorists claim that such terrorism has already occurred, especially during some recent conflicts in North Africa.  A commonly observed practice, during the recent north/south conflict in Sudan, was the dropping of a dead dog down the local well to prevent villagers from returning to the settlement.  In Mexico many human corpses, the results of drug violence, are tossed into local wells, either for easy disposal or as an act of local terrorism.

Unfortunately, these disgusting acts can have much broader effects.  Even if only the local water supply is targeted, the entire region can be impacted, causing long term effects such as genocide of entire regional populations through slow crippling or infectious diseases.  The effects of these practices can be so widespread that they are actually suicidal, as the effects spread to the perpetrators' home regions.  Slowly killing their own people with parasitic and water borne infections.

It is a historical fact that during the worldwide infatuation with eugenics, that governments, such as the colonial India administrations, sought to eliminate the "un-fit or un-worthy", through denial or contamination of environmental resources.  I can only imagine some haughty religious group, using their rigid interpretation of their religious texts, or political expediency, as justification for the mass defiling of environmental resources to kill the Godless.

In short, groundwater management schemes must be based upon the knowledge of studies and testing, and history is a poor source of information about hidden resources. If groundwater resources are unsafe, the people will depend on the government to inform them as quickly as possible.

Many recent expose's have been based on the contamination of groundwater, or the unbalancing of the top layers of the earths crust, by industrial operations, such as mining or hydrocarbon extraction.  The earth just like the atmosphere is composed of many layers.  These layers vary in density, heat, and groundwater storage.   While most industrial activities, operate at deep depths, below aquifers, the passage from deep levels to the surface, necessarily affects the higher levels where groundwater is stored. 

Fracking, which is an industrial practice, uses high pressure fluids to release and amalgamate valuable petrochemical resources, from deep rock formations, oil or natural gas are concentrated into valuable pools , that would otherwise not have sufficient density to be valuable.

Thousands of residents have been able to detect groundwater pollution as the water flows from the tap.  In some cases there were sufficient quantities of natural gas dissolved in the water, that allows some to light their tap water with a match. What this portends is that many potentially harmful contaminants, which are not so easily demonstrated, are being dissolved in local water supplies, yet remain unknown to the users.

Also, as vast amounts of fluid or gases are extracted from deep drilling operations leaving substantial voids, that will be filled by gravity and pressures.   Despite industry attempts to mitigate this problem, by replacing evacuated fluids with, often dirty, water, many people, in heavily fracked regions, are experiencing steady and rapid increase in the frequency and intensity of localized earthquakes.

Bio-recharge techniques will dramatically increase the volumes of groundwater re-charge flows.  These increased flows will tend to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic and natural processes, which have historically, and continue to, modify the density of underground layers.  Also, since the only way, in many cases, to detoxify ground water is dilution, groundwater recharge will reduce the lethality of any contaminants.

Consequently, groundwater monitoring, and recharge, must be a high priority of all municipal governments.


Evaporation management to achieve targeted precipitation:

The goal of evaporation management is to pump sufficient quantities of water from the surface to productive cloud layers, resulting in rainfall.  The challenges are to generate both sufficient water elevation to generate rain, and the ability to steer productive cloud formation to areas of greatest utility or benefit.

Evaporation is the source of water vapor for clouds, while various topographical and atmospheric factors determine where precipitation will actually fall. 

Water is evaporated from bodies of water large or small, plants, animals, etc.  The evaporative process generally leaves un-bound, or loosely bound contaminants behind (dirt, sand, salt and many chemicals), while only the water molecules themselves are able to make the phase transition, from liquid to gas.  It is this aspect of evaporation which makes it the primary method of desalination.  When salt was more important, and often more valuable than gold, many cities that are important today sprang up to create and market salt from vast coastal evaporation pools.

Evaporation suspends water molecules in the atmosphere if conditions, (atmospheric pressure, temperature, or saturation), are conducive. Water vapor from evaporation is a form of latent heat, because it takes an amount of energy to make the phase transition from liquid to gas, as well as to remain suspended in the atmosphere.

The earths' atmosphere is comprised of many co-dependent layers. The lowest layers are warmed through reflected sunlight, and heat emanating from ground sources.  As a result higher layers tend to be cooler than lower layers. 

However, some of the highest atmospheric layers are warmed by the absorption of sun light and other radiation sources. Water vapor, warmed by terrestrial sources, both natural and anthropogenic, then rises to the lower forming cloud layers of the atmosphere. 

Clouds form at many layers of the atmosphere as a result of cooling and the availability of effective seed nuclei, such as salt crystals, bits of plant matter, and pollution.  However, only the lowest layers can produce clouds of sufficient density to generate rain, that can potentially reach the planets' surface. 

All clouds are constantly producing precipitation, yet only the lowest layer clouds can generate rain drops with sufficient mass to reach the surface.  Precipitation from higher clouds tends to be evaporated before reaching the surface, this phenomena is known as virga, and is seen as high sparse clouds.  Consequently, I will refer, in this article, to both productive and non-productive cloud layers.

Cloud formation is based upon evolved energy/water cycles which combines evaporation, insolation, gravity, buoyancy, rain seed nuclei and long wave energy from the earth's core.

Where rain actually occurs is a combination of local factors such as topography, thermal conditions, and regional factors such as wind velocities at various atmospheric levels, humidity, and latent energy levels. 

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management,
P. W. Keys1,*, R. J. van der Ent2 , L. J. Gordon1 ,
 H. Hoff3,4, R. Nikoli2 , and H. H. G. Savenije2 1
Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University,
Stockholm, Sweden 2Department of Water Management,
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences,
Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
These regional factors are the source of the precipitation-shed phenomena, where evaporation from multiple distant sources combines to generate rain at predictable locations.

High albedo areas, (albedo is the degree of reflective-ness of materials, primarily based upon color : i.e. white reflects more sunlight than black), such as deserts naturally suppress precipitation due to the virga phenomena discussed above. 

This results in much higher precipitation levels over low albedo forests, and lower rates over highly reflective deserts or pavements. This phenomena goes a long way towards explaining why deserts continue to be deserts and forested areas can rely on regular and abundant precipitation.

Consequently, one easy method of generating increased rainfall in a region, is to lower the albedo of the terrain.  This can be achieved by adding vegetation, especially tree cover, to roadways, and other paved surfaces.  Alternatively, cities can reduce their albedo with parks and mandated roof gardens.

There is a  fundamental dis-connect between water usage and the water cycle.  Many researchers and water experts seem to view water as a local or regional resource that requires conservation.  Yet, I contend that the long term solution to water problems is to manage flow through the atmosphere, forcing to key areas, and quality management controlled at the source.

Bio-recharge management is no panacea. 

There are a number of serious problems that come with the expansion of evaporation as a climate management method.  These problems stem primarily from insects, such as mosquitos, but also includes a related problem of locusts and other pests. 

Hgeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, istory is replete with references to the destructive effects of swarming locusts, as referenced in both the Christian Bible and the holy Quran. Various species of Acrididae, (grasshoppers), are transformed, by serotonin increases, from their solitary statary phase to an emergent gregarious phase (swarms) by changes in rainfall  which result in increased food supplies for the creatures.

One historical record indicates in 311 AD, 98% of a regional Chinese population, were killed by swarming insects.

However, with modern techniques of monitoring and early intervention, employing various herbicides or fungicides, this problem can hopefully be controlled.

Other problems related to the wide spread, especially at the residential level, usage of rainfall capture and evaporation pool usage include significant increases in mosquito breeding, while the attraction of large quantities of birds can lead to dangerous increases in harmful microbiological environments. 

Yet, if evaporation enhancements are legislated, such as either horizontal or vertical motion, (i.e. fountains or waves), these problems can also be significantly mitigated.

Definitions:
INDRA  INdRA  

Interior Natural Desert Reclamation and Afforestation projects

Run-off Water resulting from floods or heavy rain that is directed by separate non-treating sewer systems directly to water dumps, (i.e. Rivers, Lakes, Oceans)
PBL Planetary Boundary Layer : The planetary boundary layer (PBL alternatively ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere and its behavior is directly influenced by its contact with a planetary surface.
Silvopasture  The historic agricultural practice of combining forestry and grazing of domesticated animals in a mutually beneficial way.

How can we manage evaporation flow and precipitation forcing:

The thousands of energy producing industrial plants, such as power stations, contaminategeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, water by adding heat and dissolved chemicals. 

This hot, dirty water is pumped back into rivers, lakes and other valuable water supplies lowering water quality and stressing the environment.

If those same plants would use the waste heat energy in this water to evaporate it above the PBL (planetary boundary layer : the lowest layer of the atmosphere) which in many regions is only a few hundred feet, this low quality water would become clean rains leaving the dangerous chemicals behind. 

Many of these residual chemicals could be harvested and reused locally or sold to other industrial concerns.

Keep in mind that bio-recharge is the industrialization of evaporation and groundwater recharge.  Consequently, the impacts of bio-recharge, on the regional water cycle, will be an increase as much as 5,000%.

The INDRA project consults on legislative methods with municipal officials, and has presented scholarly papers to the cooling tower industry (CTI), which detail methods of converting tens of thousands of industrial cooling towers, into cloud generators.  Some modest cloud generation is a natural and common result of large industrial cooling tower operations. 

Yet with some fundamental design changes, or in many cases simple tweaks in the current design,  these industrial concerns, (including power plants, refineries, chemical processing, and metallurgy plants), can increase these cloud generation affects, with widespread regional benefits. Evaporation/aquifer recharge strom drains

Another option would be for these energy plants to surround themselves with evaporation pools to achieve the same ends, (the processing of waste water), with relatively minor costs.

Mining and drilling operations use the quality of vast amounts of water to extract hydrocarbons from the earth.  These operations now pump lowered quality water, into local water dumps as well as  back into wells and mines, with the hope that they will both avoid subsidence (sinking & sinkholes), and that the vast depths they work at will prevent interference with water well drilling. 

Yet, in areas such as drought ravaged southern California, wells have already reached 1800 feet.   Water wells around the world are both increasingly deeper and more common.

The 1980's UN project to develop more wells in developing countries led to millions of deaths via arsenic poisoning, due to poorly constructed and designed wells.

These same industrial operations could employ vast evaporation pools to re-integrate water into the environment, while employing aquifer recharge pits providing the community with both long term groundwater, but also competent storm buffering.

Commercial and residential users could employ similar techniques to both capture water from, and return water to, the atmosphere and groundwater, while using dissolved organics to generate methane for local energy usage. 

Residential greywater and methane captureToday water, often lightly used to wash hands or shower, is pumped, or gravity fed, to large deep sewage plants which effectively discourage evaporation, and concentrate organic waste for expensive processing. 

If source contamination is controlled within residential and commercial facilities, (such as only environmentally neutral types of soaps and detergents allowed), most filtered sewer water  (a.k.a. grey water)  can be used to irrigate local trees and other vegetation, as well as enhancing evaporation. 

This process will increase water quality, as only water is evaporated, leaving behind contaminates such as salts, and lowering energy costs, used to move sewage up grade for processing.  Such grey-water schemes are already being employed around the world. 

Some desert US cities, as well as the government of India have well developed grey-water schemes, that despite some potentially extremely negative effects (such as the spreading of E-Coli and other harmful bacteria through the agricultural system into the food supply), these schemes are beneficial in that they lower sewage processing costs, as well as increasing the local or regional water supply.

Municipalities can make greater strides in rain harvesting and moving toward eliminating raw run-off through storm drains, by employing bio-recharge techniques evaporation management, groundwater leeching, and grey water.

Permeable pavements, and aquifer recharging run-off structures can greatly enhance both water quality, water elevation, and water availability. Helpful soil management techniques, which increase the carrying capacity of soil, (infiltration rates, soil held water mobility, and root zone infiltration), such as the proportion of sand vs. clay in soils, can be legislated for all economic sectors including; commercial, industrial, municipal and residential. 

Cost positive practices such as mulching as opposed to municipal leaf collection programs, can greatly enhance the carrying capacity of residential soils.  Leaf, and grass clippings, pickup programs damage regional soil health, and therefore damage soil carrying capacities.  Soil carrying capacity is a most important factor in flood control, and bio-recharge. Encouraging residential and commercial mulching is one of the most important measures that a society can implement to both, limit flooding and encourage healthy vegetation.

Helpful and detrimental agricultural practices, such as wet tillage, and runoff minimization can also be legislated.
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Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.
 

Tillage and planting cycles should be guided by a well designed regional plan. The plan could be implemented with guides, but also with a restriction and exception systems, or a certification process.  All must do their part in regional bio-recharge schemes.  Regional evaporation and groundwater management should prove to be an easy sell to farmers.

Wind farms can have significantgeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, effects on local levels of evaporation if they are positioned in such a way as to remove energy from winds that have traditionally generated key evaporation resources.  If wind farms are located to enhance evaporation, that wind farm can be a net rain enhancer.

Agricultural users, who should know better, set up the same ill advised irrigation systems.  Crops are overwatered and the run-off is to transport facilities like deep ditches and culverts, which limit evaporation. 

Tree cover is replace by popular vegetation mono-cultures, (i.e. corn, soy, etc.).  Yet,  mature trees act as straws that evaporate ground water through transpiration from the stomata of leaves, that is of higher quality than the source.  While the transpiration of mono-culture crops actually reduces water quality with dissolved solids such as fertilizers.

Crop based ground cover, such as corn stalks are harvested for animal feed, and the ground re-plowed.  If evaporation were the focus of plowing and the harvesting of low value vegetation would be curtailed, and livestock be allowed to graze on the harvested fields, through a practice known as silvopasture

The grazed fields will be fertilized by animal droppings. If chickens, or other insect eaters are rotated, or co-grazed, with cows and pigs many insects species will also be contained minimizing the need for pesticides.

Evaporation pools, which have been used for many centuries to harvest salt from brackish water, represent a mature technology, yet they are no panacea.  Various detailed studies of the comparative costs of evaporation pools as compared to  disposal of brackish water via pipelines are available. 

See:  Evaluation of two concentrate disposal alternatives.

Yet, these studies do not factor in the value of returning water to the atmosphere via evaporation.  However, there are some outstanding land-usage, ground water quality  and environmental concerns raised by these technologies.

Most of these concerns can be addressed by creating salt marshes as opposed to raw evaporation pools.  These concerns include TDS (total dissolved salt) management, ground water seepage, and harm to wildlife.

Also note that global demand for salt is forecast to climb 1.5 percent annually to 325 million metric tons in 2018, valued at $13.4 billion. The dominant Asia/Pacific region will be the fastest growing market. Trends in the production of chlor-alkali chemicals (Caustic Soda, Chlorine and Soda Ash), applications include; (Alumina, EDC/PVC, Glass, Organic Chemicals, Inorganic Chemicals, Food, Pulp & Paper, Water Treatment and Others) will continue to have the most significant effect on regional salt demand.

Yet another agricultural alternative that must be addressed is a combination of evaporation and recycling.  There has been a large amount of ink spent on virtual water exporting.  Tgeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, his is where the amount of water that is used to create a crop, is then used as a measure of its societal cost of irrigation. 

For example it is widely reported that a single almond requires a gallon of water to produce. This equivalent is to saying that it takes a million gallons of water to raise a human being.  If this were true then spaceflight, and the international space station would be impossible.

Yet this is only true if evaporation is considered to be wastage of water.  

The water usage of a particular crop is actually correctly measured by the amount of water contained in the harvest.  In this way an Almond far from requiring a gallon of water actually contains a fraction of an ounce.  A pound of beef actually contains a few ounces of water, which is nothing like the hundreds of gallons reported in the popular press.

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The balance of the water attributed to the cultivation of an Almond or a pound of beef, has actually been cycled through during growth. 

If evaporation management has been correctly implemented then the almond or livestock farmer's water usage must, if clarity and fairness are your objective, then be limited to the water contained in the final product.

When state of the art evaporation management techniques are employed during the growing process, the hyperbolic usage of agricultural water can be severely limited, thereby allowing for dramatically increased production, and the costs of production will be significantly lowered.   The primary evaporation method that can be employed is tenting.

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When crops are tented during key growth cycles, evaporated and transpired water is collected, and recycled in place many times.  This decreases water demand, and thereby decreases demands on groundwater, and the energy used in pumping water from wells. 

Regional and municipal costs are also impacted, in that vast amounts of energy are used in municipal waste water pumping, often up-grade, to regional processing facilities or water dumps, can be eliminated or at least curtailed.


 

Definitions:
Precipitation Forcing's The creation or existence of atmospheric conditions conducive to rain, and productive cloud development, in a specific region.
   

Precipitation Forcing's:

Rain seems to be a near random phenomena.  Where, and when it, rains has traditionally been viewed as an act of God, which consequently would make rain steering impossible for mankind.  Consequently, water evaporated back into the atmosphere presents as an ineffectual or at least uncontrollable resource, especially in agriculture.  Yet, precipitation patterns are greatly influenced by a wide variety of factors that can be controlled by regional and municipal authorities.

These control vectors include;

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, 1.  Actual regional humidity, (the amount of water vapor held by the atmosphere).  The carrying capacity of the atmosphere is largely a function of atmospheric temperature.  Hot air holds more water than cooler air. The atmosphere generally gets cooler with height. 

When rising water saturated air rises to a sufficiently cooler area, dispersed water vapor cools to its dew point and begins the formation of clouds, given the existence of appropriate seed nuclei.

This means that as atmospheric temperatures and humidity are controlled, control can also be exercised on precipitation.  Bio-recharged evaporation rates will accelerate the flow of warmed water.

2. Topography, or the lay of the land, is known to impose a variety of controls on precipitation.  These effects include phenomena like rain shadows, lake effect snow, and inversion zones.

These topographical factors can be exploited to target cities and other water needy operations.  These factors can also be legislated and managed through various evaporation/groundwater evaluations of infrastructure projects, and land use policies.  Land use policies, can by managing wind flows, (with vegetation, roadway construction, and building height generated wind voids), create topography's conducive to evaporation/groundwater management.

3. Ground based cloud seeding has long been known to enhance local precipitation.  China successfully used such methods to clean it's skies, in preparation for the Olympics.  Even light precipitation will effectively wash many particulates out of the air.  Consequently, regular predictable precipitation is one of the best methods of pollution mitigation over vast expanses.

City dwellers have noticed the rainy weekend effect for centuries, (with average daily precipitation rising on Thursday and into the weekend and then dipping from Sunday through the middle of the week), since the growth of cities. 

Cities heat the atmosphere, by the consumption and conversion of energy, (the heat island effect), by as many as 10 degrees F.

The sources of city heat are classified as either sensible, (heat that you can sense), or latent heat, (energy trapped in gas, liquids, or solids).  Sensible heat is generated by the operation of machines, especially cars, air conditioner outputs, fires, and other exothermic processes such as cooking or friction from vehicle or pedestrian movements.  The primary sources of latent heat include methane, from toilet traps, municipal dumps, rotting garbage in commercial dumpsters, and sewage being transited to municipal processing facilities.  Other green house gas emissions, such as CO2, also contribute to the heat generated by cities.

City heat is a fundamental construct of the "Gare Hypothesis" listed above.  The heat generated by the cities warms the air which then rises to productive cloud layers, and causes more rain in, and downwind, of cities.

This is in effect ground based cloud seeding by heat and pollution, as either heat, methane or particulate matter.  The build-up of particulates fulfills one of the key requirements of rainfall which is the provision of adequate seed nuclei necessary for productive cloud formation. 

The particulate emissions of vehicles and industrial processes supply the small particles required for effective precipitation.  Water vapor in clouds react to these small particles by coalescing around them to form raindrops.  Consequently, rain is a combination of water vapor and seed nuclei.

The release of methane from city dumps, and the plethora of toilet methane taps on the roofs of most buildings, transfers latent energy to the local environment resulting in more energy/moisture being trapped in clouds and the general atmosphere.  This trapped energy contributes to both precipitation and weather.

While predictable rainfall has many societal benefits, such as rainfall capture, city hygiene, (i.e. washing dog urine and fecal matter off the streets),  rainfall also apparently reduces the intensity of hurricanes that hit over the weekend, such that weekend hurricanes tend to be much weaker than early weekday storms.

Katrina Charles, Nature: 8/11/2008  Said "It's been known for years that man-made pollution affects weather patterns, but in the first survey of weekly weather cycles to cover Western Europe, researchers have found that pollution seems to be giving the Spanish milder winter weekends. But there’s a sting in the tail — summer weekends are correspondingly colder and wetter."



"Entrainment Detrainment en" by Appaches - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Entrainment_Detrainment_en.svg#/media/File:Entrainment_Detrainment_en.svg
"Entrainment Detrainment en" by Appaches - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Commons -
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Entrainment_Detrainment_en.svg#/media/File:Entrainment_Detrainment_en.svg

4. Entrainment/Detrainment rates: (Entrainment is the transport of fluid across an interface between two bodies of fluid by a shear induced turbulent flux. Turner. 1973. Buoyancy Effects in Fluids pp. 167):
Definitions:
Detrainment The transfer of energy from one cloud to another.
Entrainment The effect of warm saturated air rising into the cloud layer, which are key factors in precipitation.

This phenomena, warm saturated air rising to productive cloud levels, results in cloud enhancement and can therefore force precipitation in a particular area. 

Clouds are energy storage and energy transfer phenomena, you can think of clouds as atmospheric batteries.  The energy trapped in clouds is latent heat, and water, in an unstable state.  One means of energy transfer from clouds is, when cloud trapped energy is sufficient, then the natural polarity differentials between various parts of clouds causes small non-productive clouds to combine into larger productive clouds.

The second and most useful energy transfer of clouds is when phase shifts, from gas to liquid, result from the generation of productive droplet sizes which become productive precipitation (rainfall).

INDRA ground based cloud enhancement:

INDRA is a non-profit NGO specializing in regional geo-engineering projects.  INDRA comprises the research lab for GSE (Gravitational Systems Engineering) a for profit engineering firm focused on the capture of energy from non-traditional energy sources such as gravity, atmospheric and water pressure, atmospheric heat, and many other common energetic phase shifts, which is one of the most innovativegeo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, applications of the first law of thermodynamics
energy ever devised, {in a closed system, can be converted but never destroyed}). 


GSE and INDRA papers have been presented at numerous scientific conferences, and 100s of articles about our technologies, (the first of was the G-pump which converts the movement of vehicles into energy), have been featured in the world scientific press. GSE energy capture technologies are featured in many secondary and university level textbooks, around the world.  INDRA research-engineers been asked to have chair scientific conferences in Asia and Europe.

For more information please visit our websites. INDRA : INDRA-Rain.org) and GSE (
gravitationalsystems.com).

The INDRA/GSE ground based cloud enhancement systems can have great impact on entrainment rates, thereby enhancing local rainfall, and focusing the precipitation shed effect, which concentrates rain in to often unproductive areas.

Hungry thin or unproductive cloud cover can be fed with warm atmospheric water, through entrainment, by ground enhancement techniques.  These ground based cloud enhancers can be energy usage neutral or energy positive when local natural heat/radiation sources, (such as solar, wind, gravity or geo-thermal), provide the necessary energy for their operation.

These ground based cloud generators are highly scalable, and construction of the systems can be well within municipal budgets.  Large installations, designed to manage long-term regional climate/weather, can be in excess of 1,000 feet tall, as warm atomized water is delivered above the PBL (Planetary boundary layer: which is at some points only 600 ft. thick), to low atmospheric layers where productive cloud formation naturally occurs.

GSE designs and devices are enabling technologies, although they are not essential to successful bio-recharge.  Local construction companies, and years of legislative guidance can begin the process of regenerating and rebuilding local and regional water cycles, damaged through decades of wrong headed policy's' based upon inadequate scientific theories.  Bio-recharge is the next evolutionary step in the design of water distribution systems, to support growing populations.

INDRA has been approached by multiple heads of state in East Africa, and the middle East  to design/construct large ground-based cloud enhancement facilities.  INDRA engineers proposed designs which are based upon atmospheric water capture, local building materials, and vast upgrades to local human skills, and quality of life, as hundreds or sometimes thousands of locals are employed in construction of these facilities.

geo-engineering experts since 2002, Asilomar International Conference on Climate Intervention ,  Solar radiation management, geoengineers, Marine Cloud Brightening,  ocean acidification,  stratospheric sulfate aerosols,  Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation and Carbon sequestration, climate change,  runaway global warming,  Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, UNFCCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Arctic geoengineering, Carbon negative fuel, Convention on Biological Diversity, Earth systems engineering and management, The model resilient home or building:

My idea of the resilient structure captures as much as possible of its water and energy from nature, supplemented by centralized resources.  

During optimum conditions, (i.e. sunny summer days), such a resilient system should achieve a ratio, (between site-generated and municipal resource usage),  targeted at 75% : 25%. 

During extremely challenging conditions, such as a winter night or during a disaster, the ratio should be targeted at 90%:0%. 

Isolated locations, such as forward military bases will, with local conservation, be able to completely sustain life, independent of centralized resources. 

Such a facility design could also allow on-site gardening, with minimal re-supply.  A resilient building or home, can implement the fluid/energy map shown above, using no more than 2-4% of available space.  Sewage discrimination in the basement, water storage, heating and solar collection on the roof.

Resilient designs should ideally add no more than 25-40% to initial construction costs.

A structure based upon this scalable model, drastically lowers utility costs to both the user and the municipality, and will largely be immune from central resource failures. 

-. Water sufficient for consumption and hygiene, is obtained from rainwater capture and supplemented by municipal water supplies. 

-. Heating and cooling energy sufficient for water heating and space A/C, is obtained from solar, geo-thermal energy and trapped methane. 

-. Electric power for lighting etc., will be trapped  from solar, methane and supplemented by the municipal grid. 

-. Methane, for heating and cooking, is generated from sewage, meanwhile, evaporating as much water as possible back into the water cycle.  Sewage water that is not evaporated should be leeched back into the groundwater system, or be used for plant watering.   Sewage that cannot be processed locally is then fed to municipal sewer systems.

If legislation supporting the building of resilient homes and buildings are implemented, with tax credits and subsidies, within two human generations, municipal infrastructure costs will decrease sharply.  Business and residential citizens will be protected from central resource failures, and the water cycle dramatically improved.

The calendar for the next century:

By 2030 I hope to employ bio-recharge as a cultural phenomena, rivaling past cultural environmental campaigns such as re-cycling or conservation. 

By 2050 our design is that widespread climate and storm management techniques are being employed, on at least a regional basis.  Our sister organization, the INDRA Institute, is a think tank working to achieve these political and legislative ends, via scholarly papers, social media, and conferences.  For more information, or to support this important work, please visit their website indra-institute.com.

We envision a world at 2090 with manageable weather, maintained by thousands of ground based cloud management facilities distributed around the globe.  Cities and industries will use high priority evaporation/groundwater management to further enhance the process.

When we think of anthropogenic weather control, we must not think in terms of switches that can automatically cause rainfall or reduce atmospheric temperatures. Instead we should envision climate/weather control as an emergent phenomena based upon the collective, medium and short-term, decisions of various municipalities applying bio-recharge techniques to achieve particular ends.

These installations will become life magnets, as wonders, as vacation spots, and cities.  Birds, and animals will find ground based cloud enhancers to be reliable sources of water, and the increased rainfall can, over as little as 2 human generations, reverse desertification and even turn natural deserts into semi-tropical zones. 

INDRA engineers have developed plans for desert kingdoms, such as Saudi Arabia and the gulf states, that can, within three human generations, convert natural deserts into semi-tropical agricultural wonders.

These plans are simple, elegant and cost effective.  In brief, results such as re-generating a new water cycle, a sub-tropical water cycle, in a traditional desert can be achieved in two or three human generations. 

Evaporation channels, wide and shallow, dotted with fountains, are constructed to transport brackish water from nearby sources.  As much as 50% of the water will be evaporated during transit.  The balance of the water will be fed into ground based cloud seeding devices, strategically located in areas which are calculated to target specific regions with predictable precipitation.  If the water must be pumped up-grade, then solar pumps can be employed.

Such a scheme will require 4-10 years to implement, with costs well within the budgetary reach of most countries.   The scheme will prepare the targeted area with low level environmental molding and shaping.

These evaporation resources should be combined with full implementation of bio-recharge in all cities and industrial sites. It is important to point out that regional geo-engineering is always emergent, in that the overall effects will largely depend on the number of adjacent regions that are also implementing bio-recharge techniques.  As such bio-recharge has federal reach, and should therefore be federally supported with, subsidies legislated to encourage the re-building and optimization of water cycles.

INDRA projects' ground based cloud enhancement schemes, combined with the advanced environmental energy capture techniques of GSE (Gravitational Systems Engineering), can collectively provide an unprecedented level of regional geo-engineering.  Not the overly-broad, and possibly disastrous, geo-engineering schemes being considered publicly, such as seeding plane fuels. 

INDRA project geo-engineering is performed at the regional, even local, level.  Such a scalable geo-engineering scheme can be fully vetted and provides controllable methods that can be altered to accommodate local conditions in weeks or months.

The fundamental challenge to implementing bio-recharge techniques:

The fundamental problem seems to be that people are so increasingly concentrated in cities, that bio-recharge solutions seem ineffectual or impractical. 

Yet evaporation/groundwater management can compete with traditional infrastructure projects, (such as dams, sewers, and storm drains), with vastly lower project costs,( est. 10-1) and enhance citizen lives through rainwater enhanced water supplies, increased natural hygiene, and atmospheric temperature management.

While bio-recharge techniques can not only address the problem of water distribution and municipal hygiene, they also provide long term control of atmospheric water...which is possibly the most potent environmental tool yet devised by mankind.

These projects are highly scalable and can be implemented across numerous municipal budget periods. Energy neutral residential housing, based upon INDRA designs, can also enhance the resilience, living standards and regional water cycles.

The current human water cycle is pump water, up-grade, to cities, pollute that water, then pump it back, up-grade, away for remediation. This is increasingly a recipe for disaster...unpredictable climate, desertification, terrible weather, and endemic hygiene problems.

The legislative models that I suggest are;

Planning:

-. Cities should develop master bio-recharge plans and goals to be achieved.
-. Planning goals should be the elimination of residential water bills by a specific date.
-. Planning goals should include the total elimination of water run-off by a specific date.

Culture:

-. Public campaigns should be mounted to encourage bio-recharge centered populations.
-. All facilities should be required to capture rainwater for consumption and hygiene.
-. Water should where ever feasible be either evaporated to the atmosphere, or leeched to groundwater.
-. Each city park should have as large a, bio-recharge optimized, fountain as is feasible.

Monitoring:

-. Wells should require local certification, and steps taken to ensure there integrity.
-. Well construction should require check-valves to eliminate groundwater contamination.
-. Groundwater resources should be monitored on a regular basis.

Zoning & Construction:

-. All large new construction plans should be certified by bio-recharge specialists.
-. All new or repaired roadways, parking lots and walk ways should be constructed of permissible materials.
-. Water processing plants should be optimized for bio-recharge.
-. All new projects should employ permissible, (i.e. clay vs. sand), soils to optimize soil holding capacity.
-. A/C systems waste heat should be designed to optimize evaporation, and minimizing waste heat loss to the air.
-. Cooling towers must be certified to have been optimized for either cloud generation or evaporation.
-. New construction should be required to provide an optimum level of resilience from central resources.
-. Zoning laws and building codes should be designed to implement various bio-recharge objectives.
-. Vacant lots should be purchased by the city where possible, and bio-recharge gardens constructed.
-. Large, especially seasonal parking lots should be designed to optimize groundwater seepage and evaporation.
-. All buildings should be required to operate pre-sewer systems which optimize bio-recharge and fuel generation.

Practices:

-. Waste heat from residential, commercial, and industrial concerns should be used to facilitate evaporation.
-. As much as possible solid waste, methane, and restaurant oils should be converted into fuel. 
-. Agricultural concerns should be subject to bio-recharge review and certification.
-. Industrial and commercial concerns should be required to route waster water to either air or groundwater.
-. Recycling septic systems should be employed at all feasible residential and commercial buildings.

INDRA engineers, through the GSE support firm (AES : Alacrity Engineering Services : Alacrity-services.com), have been working with US military bases to design resilient buildings, which are energy neutral and play a positive role in the local water cycle.

In summary, rather than conservation we need the following as our focus;

1. Evaporation management :
    
 Identifying and capitalizing on all opportunities to facilitate evaporation, with goal oriented monitoring.
2  Evaporation optimization:
    
Design evaporative resources to be scalable and tune-able to meet emergent needs.
3. Water quality management:
    
Focus on keeping water supplies independent, and central resources protected at all access ports.
4. Water quality optimization:
     Design water/sewage systems to reuse, evaporate, or leech groundwater. Employ only tune-able designs.
5. Groundwater monitoring:
     All groundwater resources, including soil and aquifers, must be monitored on a regular basis.
6. Groundwater optimization:
     All opportunities to leech water into the ground water should be identified and capitalized.

With focus and design we could effectively end regional drought, reduce our energy consumption and return our world to a Biblical Eden.

For more information please visit the INDRA website INDRA-Rain.com and look in the services section.


Garee Henderson, Ph.D. AD PM
Research Director of the INDRA Project
Alexandria, Virginia USA