Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy

GSE Gravitational Systems Engineering, Inc.  
Dense Environmental Energy
Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy
 
 

 



Chapter 3: Effects of drought & desertification
:

by Gare Henderson, Ph.D.

Director of Applied Research & DevelopmentAdvanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy

Gravitational Systems Engineering, Inc.

 USA

 


Economics & Politics of drought: (abridged)

The impacts of drought and desertification have economic effects on individuals, regions and markets, and political effects on entire regions and markets.

Drought weighs heaviest on girls
 
Drought:

Drought has many stakeholders, citizens, farmers, governments, and ecosystems. From the perspective of the citizenry the primary economic effects are rising prices and uncertainty. Where the effects are expected to be temporary many price related effects are, for the bulk of the population, mitigated by time and market alternatives. Market confidence can be eroded if the drought conditions, locally or internationally through markets, persists for multiple seasons. The erosion of market confidence may significantly influence industrial and agricultural planning, which may result in significant shifts or retrenchment in production, marketing, and supply. The economic impacts will often fall heaviest on marginalized populations, where market alternatives are impractical or un-available.

In cities seasonal droughts may impact all populations with increased comfort costs including hydration and thermal comforts (HVAC). The general costs of agricultural products are often impacted as local suppliers are less able to meet local needs, and good must carry additional transport and storage costs. These costs can have secondary psychological and political impacts on the general population due to the increased economic stresses.

Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy Droughts often impact seasonal work both in reductions and increases of transaction costs which make the work less profitable.  This dimming of the local economy is typical result of droughts.    While alternatively some maintenance work, especially for municipalities and industrial concerns, becomes more expensive due to dust, and materials stresses, including roadways.


Historical records are filled with drought triggered insurrections dating back to the eve of recorded history. It has often been the case that the occasion of a drought was the tipping point for societies teetering on the edge of failure, economically, socially, or politically. Often times in societies wherein a special relationship between the gods and the ruler was presumed, a drought may be viewed as evidence of that rulers growing dis-favor with the Gods, and often precipitates the collapse of the regime. Drought has also been the context of inter-group and tribal conflicts, both as resource competition and in attempts to win favor with the requisite natural or supernatural forces. It is widely believed that a drought in China, which raised international wheat prices, was a major influence on the recent regimen collapses in the middle-east known as the Arab spring.

In rural communities the economic effects of drought can often be profound. The essential nature of water forces wide ranging social and political changes on the citizens. Many of these impacts, especially on females, in developing regions are well documented by NGO and UN reports. Where access to water is limited by drought, water usage will quickly fall with the concomitant impacts of hygiene and health. However a fixed minimum level of water is essential and therefore the collection of water becomes the priority which often falls upon the females of the society.

Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy
 
Arab spring the result of increased wheat prices
Water collection often consumes such a significant amount of time that less immediate pursuits such as education or supportive economic activities are sacrificed. The weakest members of drought stricken rural communities also often suffer much longer term economic impacts through the reduced levels of hygiene. As water for hygiene and hydration becomes less available, and therefore more costly in either effort or money, drinking water standards decline sharply. A sharp decline in the acceptable quality of drinking water, where for example river water is substituted for well water, also leads to increased incidence of intestinal parasites, with well documented long term impacts on the intellectual development of children. Intestinal parasites compete for vital nutrients which can have a significant impact on both body and brain organ development during key developmental periods. Drought can add significant stress to the long term intellectual capacity of the entire region through infantile development and adolescent education, which will have longer term impacts on the economic and political productivity of the region. Other vulnerable populations include the elderly, and those with pre-existing health challenges.



Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy
http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/guineaworm/
Guinea Worm

Drought effectively increases the value of water for all uses. Yet water is often a commons resource which has not historically been subject to market controls. These shifts in value often shine a light on industrial users, such as drink bottlers, power generation plants and other industries which rely heavily on the use of water.

Once the community begins to focus on the large consumers of local water supplies, local governments often quickly begin to enact legislative controls which may significantly reduce the productivity of long term investments in industrial or extractive infrastructure. There is a rising tide of industrial/citizen conflicts which have been developing in India and through-out Asia. The southwest area of the US has also seen rising government regulations which in time will effectively ban many traditional industries.

Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy

Desertification:

When drought conditions extend for long periods the hydrology of the region shifts toward aridity. Increasing aridity once accepted as the inevitable arc of the region will force dramatic shifts in the productivity and livability of the region. Traditional agricultural products will no longer thrive in the region. Products with high water content, in essence or manufacturer, which are traditionally exported will quickly become non-competitive. Co-dependent regions or markets are adversely impacted and international markets will see sharp price increases on both the traditional products from the damaged markets, as well as alternative products.

Systems which depend upon water flows, such as hydro-electric power, gravity based sewage and water supplies, as well as chemical systems based upon humidity levels will also fail. Natural systems which are generally taken for granted will fail or become less reliable, including; thermal maintenance, water distribution, plant growth, and biodiversity.

Populations will shift toward more temperate regions with the concomitant political and economic stresses on that region. As the value of water for hydration, hygiene, and irrigation becomes more dear, due to population concentrations or production failures, fault lines such as ethnic, tribal, or historic hierarchies resurface and conflicts increase steadily.

These impacts can often extend across national boundaries as well as affect international relations. The response to long term desertification by regional governments is often to sponsor large water projects, which deny downstream users. As upstream water users consolidate resources downstream governments may be forced to take defensive or offensive actions to appease local or regional stakeholders. This level of conflict, although often disguised, are increasingly the source of frictions between regions as evidenced by UN proceedings.

Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy

 

 

 

Environmental impacts of drought & desertification:

 

Biodiversity: (abridged)


Droughts vary according to severity, frequency, and duration. While drought is defined according to precipitation ideals, a drought is actually characterized by a variety of environmental conditions. A typical drought brings reduced precipitation, reduced cloud cover, high atmospheric heat, increased levels of dust, extremes of atmospheric flows (high or low winds) and lowered fertility levels. Indigenous and endemic life forms which are successful in the region, have evolved often rigid phenologies [life cycles] which are impacted by many of the drought related environmental conditions.

Depending on these factors the species diversity of a region can be stressed in many cases to
collapse. Regional biodiversity is an evolutionary balancing function. Various species of plant, animal, fungi, and micro-organisms are introduced to a region due to a wide variety of forces such as species growth, feeding patterns of birds, species adaptation, territorial expansion, etc.. As species are introduced to an
area they often take root and begin to engage in the red queen race, [co-evolution of competing species], with various species stakeholders. These stakeholders include competitors, prey, predators, parasites, and paramours.

If the environment can, at that time, support the species and the species is successful in that environment then it becomes a part of the biodiversity of the region. The success of this synchrony of species and environment becomes a part of the balance of the region within one or more of the ecosystems or food
webs that define the region at the point of analysis.

My careful and somewhat controversial definition of biodiversity is both defensive and offensive. I state it in this way because I want to address not only the nature of biodiversity and the impacts of drought and desertification given some pre-existing ideal, but also to examine the effects of drought mitigation which
will also impact biodiversity. In my developing and peer review process of the INDRA project, which seeks to renew the hydrological balance even in historic deserts, biodiversity was often a concern of biologists when faced with the prospects of regional drought mitigation.

The biodiversity of a region under historical hydrological cycles, whether arid or temperate, is a measure of both chance and possibility. For example an area that is historically arid will engender a biodiversity comprised of the flora, fauna, and microbial populations that are able to survive and adapt to that environment. This will include those creatures and organisms which can exist with minimal water supplies, and high atmospheric heat, and this variety will be thin in compared to the same region before desertification or after mitigation measures are successfully implemented. Both the volume and types of organisms will differ according to the hydrology.

References and Recognitions: (note: most illustration link back to their original sources)

 

I will examine biodiversity under drought from a postmodernist, or non dogmatic or perhaps anti-historic, perspective.

Many in the field of environmental management, as is evidenced by the current legislative universe, for example the endangered species acts, focus at least in part on the success of individual species as the measure of biodiversity and sustainability. However, my view is that the measure of biodiversity must be
primarily on the variety and volume of species in a particular region as opposed to the existence of a particular species. To those who may be offended by this view, I want to clarify that my view is drawn for the specific circumstances dictated by abiotic stress such as drought or drought mitigation, as opposed to
the views on biodiversity that are applicable for the conservationist stressed by clearly anthropogenic sources.

Biodiversity is both an new and largely undefined scientific endeavor. Yet, I feel that we can all agree that the objective of the study and attention to biodiversity has the universal goal of serving the interests of the planet and the genome, as opposed to the current state of global or regional evolution. This view which emphasizes genetic diversity, sustainability, and vitality over the existence of specifically evolved or historical denizens of a region.

In other words my view of biodiversity measures the net level of cellular activity and cellular diversity, as opposed to specific genetic activity. Plainly stated I believe that an ecosystem is healthier if it supports larger and more diverse life forms, which may ultimately exclude some historical species. A region with scant vegetation, and few animals in my view represents regional genetic poverty and is therefore a candidate of improvement not maintenance of the status quo. In short life is results from the balancing forces of genetic opportunity, metabolic capacity, environmental applicability, and symbiosis between life forms. This soup of life can be rich with many combinations of ingredients. Historical food webs and prey/predator hierarchies are therefore subject to change and growth to accommodate cyclic or relatively short changes in hydrology, Insolation, and latent energy sources. Anthropogenic modifications, such as drought mitigation, must be both cognizant and respectful of evolved regional biodiversity, yet if modifications increase the viability of the region and are gradually introduced life will flourish.

Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parapatric_speciation

Martinique's Anole example of Parapatric speciation

That being said, lets now examine the impacts of drought and desertification on biodiversity.

As the hydrological balance in a region becomes arid many of the dominant species [relative to command of key resources] of plants and microorganisms will follow a predictable path to collapse. Large animals, perhaps less dominant species, will follow this same pattern but the food chain will thin before it collapses. That is to say that the top predators and scavengers will initially flourish as weaker
prey or scavengable materials increase. This growth in the top predators or scavengers will eventually suffer catastrophic collapse as larger populations increase the rates of prey species loss. For example a population of large cats, such as lions or cheetahs, will initially have more young due to increased food supply early in a drought, as environmentally stressed prey becomes easier to
kill. Yet if the drought continues for multiple seasons, the growing predator population will gradually drive prey animals extinct, and the predator populations will soon collapse as well.

Those species that are better adapted to arid conditions will become more dominant as successful competitors die. For example large trees require hundreds of gallons of water each day, and they will have roots and canopies sufficient to draw this much water out of the environment. While smaller trees and bushes can survive on volumes of water commensurate with their mass. As larger trees falter in a drought this will make more resources available to marginalized species, which will initially flourish in ways similar to those of top predators as described above, with initial success and then eventual, often precipitous, collapse.

This is a most tragic consequence of extended droughts or desertification. Many organisms have adaptation methods and strategies for normal periods of low water availability, which include reduced brood sizes, lowered fertility, reduced activity levels, and reduced growth. Yet, if drought is extended these methods, which weaken both individuals and the community, often leads to losses of the red queen races as parasites follow the same rapid growth and eventual collapse due to dis-synchrony within the regional biome.

It can also be argued from the contrary hypothesis, deemed the "Court Jester hypothesis", which indicates that species collapse are primarily due to Lamarckian scale changes in the abiotic environment. This is true when drought conditions come on rapidly, perhaps due to the failure of groundwater supply or integrity.

These hypothesis are balanced by the natural processes of speciation, allopatric, peripatric, parapatric and sympatric evolutionary forces. These evolutionary axioms describe how species continue to evolve as a response to separations and isolations with sexual selection and continued evolutionary diversification. As each generation is confronted with a changing environment organisms will over a few generations adapt or die. Yet the death of a particular species, given that the environment is viable, is in fact the continued evolution of biodiversity as opposed to its demise.


 

 

 

 

 

 

Climate: (abridged)

There are many energy streams that comprise local or regional weather systems. Sunlight, gravity, and quantum bonds are combined to generate the flow of water, the flow of winds and the thermal properties of mass. Drought impacts weather by exaggerating regional differences, maintaining thermal imbalances with masses of variant thermal characteristics (such as bodies of water or mountains), stifling weather balancing forces such as plant life, and by introducing mass (primarily dust) into the atmosphere.

Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy Droughts increase wind velocities especially in the PBL (lowest level of the atmosphere) with the concomitant effects of stressing vegetation on the perimeter of the drought area, and upsetting the hydrological cycle of the entire region. Droughts also add significant mass, primarily as dust, to the atmosphere which exaggerates the strength of winds and storms. Yet the most pernicious weather impacts of drought are on cloud cover. As a drought takes hold of a region there will generally be less evaporation and therefore less condensation at productive levels of the atmosphere. Clouds which do form, due to high atmospheric temperatures induced by the high albedo of drought stricken lands, will form at unproductive levels high up in the atmosphere. This creates more long wave radiation reflection back into the drought area thereby increasing the temperatures even more. This long wave reflection when combined with the lack of cloud cover to block shortwave radiation from the sun, adds tremendous energy into the regional atmosphere.

Highly energetic wind cells will form with adjacent areas and especially with other bodies of significantly different thermal densities. These energetic cells will tend to generate stronger storms and higher velocity winds, both in the drought stricken region and the adjacent regions.

 

Wild Fires:

Wild fires are an important phenomena to many ecological systems. Wild fires release many soil nutrients that have been trapped in biomass, and often foster the development of new species or the renewal of existing species of plants within an ecosystems, some animal and insect species are also well adapted to fire. Wild fires occur naturally through lighting strikes in combination with existing fuel source availability. Regional weather contributes to the occurrence of wildfires, when wind conditions spread naturally occurring strikes over wider ranges of combustible materials.

Due to the evolution of many species of trees and other vegetation, wild fires can often be viewed as a natural and beneficial part of a natural hydrological cycle. Yet as with most naturally evolved phenomena wild fires can result
from hydrological imbalances, and consequently occur with pathological frequency, intensity, scope or fire regime.

Wild fires are both a cause and result of regional drought. Non-evolutionary wild fires primarily represent a failed or failing regional hydrological cycle. If groundwater supplies are not sufficiently renewed plants will be stressed by a number of factors. Plant death or withering occurs in conjunction with drought. Plants use water to facilitate the conversion of sunlight into energy usable by the host plant, through the operation of co-evolved bacteria known as chloroplasts. Plants also use water as a major structural support. The result is that a lack of water will quickly lead to the death of vulnerable plants, and as the drought persists more substantial vegetation will also perish.

 However, prior to perishing, the structural enervation of plants due to water shortages will make them less resistant to insect and other predator attacks and therefore subject to combustion.

Drought has three faces, lack of water, high atmospheric heat (due to lack of cloud cover), and the lack of natural hydrological modifiers such as poly-culture vegetation. Wild fires correlate well with all three of these faces. Unusual wild fire regimes and frequencies can result from droughts in prior years, or form the intense heat of a current drought. The impact of recent droughts effects the availability of fuel, and the fire resistance level of the current biota.

Wild fires can also be a causal factor in the development of droughts. The intense heat of a wild fire, especially when it consumes healthy ecosystems, can generate high atmosphere clouds known as pyrocumulionimbus which can draw water away from the region. The ash of a wild fire can also rise high in the atmosphere and effectively damage the biota of adjacent regions leading to greater drought vulnerability. However, the most pronounced affect of wild fires, as they relate to drought, is wherein the disruptive heat and combustion products result in an extended high pressure zone which can deny an adjacent area sufficient precipitation tipping it towards drought.

 

 

 

Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy
http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/papers/200686ams1.2nlfree.pdf
Large disasters in the US are increasingly damaging!
Destructive weather: (abridged)

Additional considerations are the generation of tornados in regions of high albedo.  The intensity of tornados is energy related, (mass and velocity).  The factors for tornado generation and intensity are; convergence zones (contradictory wind flows), sufficient relative humidity, and the availability of transportable mass, (usually sand, dust, etc.).  Contradictory or crossed wind streams are due to the location of prevailing winds generated by pressure normalization.   When high pressure zones are created by the combination of heat and evaporation, air and humidity will move towards lower pressure zones.    Convection currents, from ABL thermal diversity can also be trapped under thermal inversions and add velocity to nascent tornados.

These winds can occur at many levels in the atmosphere.  When prevailing winds conflict at acute angles, vortices are often generated.  These vortices create significant concentrated pressure differences between the ground and low cloud levels.  The vortices gain mass from friable soil, such as fallow agricultural land, sand, or small particle debris from surface mining operations. As the mass of the vortices reach a critical point rotational inertia will enable the suspension of materials sufficient to become traumatic.   The high albedo of the area tends toward reduced ground adhesion by particles of all sizes.  Higher temperature surfaces, below melting points, tend to enforce particle separations thereby reducing adhesion.  This is seen in gas expansion, and is evident at all particulate levels.

Tornados are energy phenomena based upon both mass and velocity.   These storms rely on the confluence of winds, and the availability of corruptible mass.   Winds result from differences in atmospheric pressure.  The atmosphere is a relatively thin fluid, composed of unbound particles which seek the lowest possible energy levels.  Heat rises because cold falls.     High pressure zones attract low pressure zones.  The normalization or equalization of atmospheric pressures is seen as wind. 

Advanced Traffic Management System,the Intelligent Transportation System ,Increase transportation system efficiency, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA),SAFETEA-LU,Real-time traffic monitoring, Dynamic message sign monitoring and control, Incident monitoring, Traffic camera monitoring and control, Active Traffic Management (ATM), Chain control, Ramp meter monitoring and control, Arterial management, Traffic signal monitoring and control, Automated warning systems, Road Weather Information System, (RWIS) monitoring, Highway advisory radio, Urban Traffic Management and Control, Livable Streets,Traffic engineers refer to three "E's" when discussing traffic calming:,speed humps, chicanes, curb extensions, and living street and shared space ,Visual traffic calming,lane narrowings, road diets, bulbouts, Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points, Road diets, Pedestrian refuges ,Speed bumps, Speed humps, Speed tables, Boom barrier, Enforcement and education measures, Vehicle activated sign, Watchman, traffic calming system,Cochrane Review, Randal O'Toole, social engineering, Weather modification, Project Stormfury, Benign Weather Modification, Air Force Major Barry B. Coble,2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S., Senate Bill 517, U.S. House Bill 2995,Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, Senator John N. Leedom, 2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board, Iphigenia, goddess Artemis,Aeolus, lapis manalis, The Berwick witches of Scotland, Scandinavian witches,Alexander Graham Bell, Brazilís ethanol fuel program, Cellulosic ethanol, Hydro electricity,Nuclear energy, Wind energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, Hydrogen, Thermal energy storage, heat pumps, low-energy-densit, Drake Landing Solar Community, Borehole thermal energy, George Olah carbon dioxide recycling plant, Carbon Recycling International, flue exhaust, Svartsengi Power Station, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Fraunhofer Society, A3 Sportback g-tron ,carbon-neutral,Green accounting, Green economy, Green trading, Eco commerce, Green job, Environmental enterprise, Fiscal environmentalism, Environmental finance, Renewable energy
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/cei/regional_overview/01-12
NOAA 2012 CEI shows the roots of destructive weather
Atmospheric high pressure is a combination of latent heat, and the density of particles.  Heat energy is analogous to cars traveling on the freeway.   Higher speeds, larger vehicles, and more complex and divergent paths cause collisions to be more energetic, and increased wariness, (buffer and isolation zones}, between drivers. 

Control of latent atmospheric heat is achievable through the management of regional albedo. Promotion of optimal conversion of sunlight into plant growth, and minimize heat reflection back into the atmosphere. Corruptible mass can be controlled by agricultural fallowing practices, industrial policy, and the management of natural and manmade sources of large concentrations of friable materials.  Regional humidity can be managed via evaporation policies, and source management.   Humidity can also be managed via mechanical purges, and induced rain through airborne and ground based cloud seeding of key regional areas in sympathy with naturally occurring imbalances.

 

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References and Recognitions: (note: most illustration link back to their original sources)

     
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